Archive for the ‘1 Kings 12’ Category

The Superscription and First Epigram of the Book of Amos   2 comments

Above:  Map of the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel during the Reigns of Kings Azariah (Uzziah) of Judah and Jeroboam II of Israel

Image Scanned from an Old Bible

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READING AMOS, PART I

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Amos 1:1-2

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The superscription (1:1) provides information useful in dating the original version of the Book of Amos.  Jeroboam II (r. 788-747 B.C.E.; 2 Kings 14:23-29) was the King of Israel.  Azariah/Uzziah (r. 785-733 B.C.E.; 2 Kings 15:1-17; 2 Chronicles 26:1-23).  In a seismically-active region, the “big one” of circa 770 or 760 or 750 B.C.E. was apparently a memorable natural disaster.  (Ironing out wrinkles in the chronology of the era from Uzziah to Hezekiah has long been difficult, as many Biblical commentaries have noted.  For example, reputable sources I have consulted have provided different years, ranging from 742 to 733 B.C.E., for the death of King Uzziah.)  Centuries later, after the Babylonian Exile, Second Zechariah recalled that cataclysm in the context of earth-shaking events predicted to precede the Day of the Lord–in Christian terms, the establishment of the fully-realized Kingdom of God:

And the valley in the Hills shall be stopped up, for the Valley of the Hills shall reach only to Azal; it shall be stopped up as a result of the earthquake in the days of King Uzziah of Judah.–And the LORD my God, with all the holy beings, will come to you.

–Zechariah 14:5, TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

The original version of the Book of Amos, then, dates to circa 772 or 762 or 752 B.C.E.

The final version of the Book of Amos, however, dates to the period after the Babylonian Exile.  The prophecies of Hosea, Amos, Micah, and First Isaiah, in their final forms, all do.  So do the final versions of much of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, from Genesis to the two Books of Kings.  The final version of the Book of Amos indicates a pro-Judean bias, evident first in the listing of Kings of Judah before King Jeroboam II of Israel.

“Amos,” the shorter version of “Amasiah,” derives from the Hebrew verb for “to carry” and means “borne by God.”

Amos was a Judean who prophesied in the (northern) Kingdom of Israel.  He was, by profession, a breeder of sheep and cattle, as well as a tender of sycamore figs (1:1, 7:14).  The prophet was wealthy.  In 2 Kings 3:4, King Mesha of Moab was also a sheep breeder.  Amos hailed from the village of Tekoa, about eight kilometers, or five miles, south of Bethlehem, and within distant sight of Jerusalem (2 Samuel 14:2; Jeremiah 6:1).  King Rehoboam of Judah (r. 928-911 B.C.E.; 1 Kings 12:1-33; 1 Kings 15:21-31; 2 Chronicles 10:1-12:16; Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 47:23) had ordered the fortification of Tekoa (2 Chronicles 11:6).  Although Amos prophesied in the (northern) Kingdom of Israel, “Israel” (Amos 1:1) was a vague reference.

Since the prophetic office as manifested in Amos was a function of Yahweh’s lordship over his people, the political boundary that had been set up between Judah and Israel was utterly irrelevant.  Amos was concerned with Israel in their identity as the people of the Lord; the sphere of his activity was the realm of the old tribal league, all Israel under Yahweh, and not the state cult with its orientation to the current king and his kingdom.

–James Luther Mays, Amos:  A Commentary (1969), 19

I wonder if the vagueness of “Israel” in Amos 1:1 is original or if it is a product of subsequent amendment and editing.  The later editing and amendment do present questions about how to interpret the edited and amended texts.  Anyhow, I recognize that the message of God, via Amos of Tekoa, received and transmitted faithfully in a particular geographical and temporal context, remains relevant.  That message remains germane because human nature is a constant force, often negatively so.

The reference to the cataclysmic earthquake (Amos 1:) may do more than help to date the composition of the first version of the book.  One may, for example, detect references to that earthquake in Amos 2:13, 3;14f, 6:11, and 9:1.  One may reasonably speculate that the Book of Amos, in its final form, at least, may understand the earthquake of circa 770 or 760 or 750 B.C.E. as divine punishment for rampant, collective, persistent, disregard for the moral demands of the Law of Moses.  This presentation of natural disasters as the wrath of God exists also in Joel 1 and 2 (in reference to a plague of locusts) and in Exodus 7-11 (in reference to the plagues on Egypt).  This perspective disturbs me.  I recall certain conservative evangelists describing Hurricane Katrina (2005) as the wrath of God on New Orleans, Louisiana, allegedly in retribution for sexual moral laxity.  I wish that more people would be more careful regarding what they claim about the divine character.  I also know that earthquakes occur because of plate tectonics, swarms of locusts go where they will, and laws of nature dictate where hurricanes make landfall.

Amos seems to have prophesied in the (northern) Kingdom of Israel briefly, perhaps for only one festival and certainly for less than a year, at Bethel, a cultic site.  Then officialdom saw to it that he returned to Tekoa, his livestock and sycamore figs, and the (southern) Kingdom of Judah.

[Amos] proclaimed:

The LORD roars from Zion,

Shouts aloud from Jerusalem;

And the pastures of the shepherds shall languish,

And the summit of Carmel shall wither.

–Amos 2:2, TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

The theological understanding in Amos 2:2 holds that God was resident in Zion.  The reference to Mount Carmel, on the Mediterranean coast and in the (northern) Kingdom of Israel makes plain that the message was, immediately, at least, for the Northern Kingdom.  Looking at a map, one can see the geographical setting.  For the divine voice, shouted in Jerusalem, to make the summit of Mount Carmel writhe, poetically, God really is a force with which to reckon.

God is near, but he is also far–immeasurably exalted, inexpressively different.  He is the king who does not die.

–R. B. Y. Scott, The Relevance of the Prophets, 2nd. ed. (1968), 121

How we mere mortals think, speak, and write about God depends largely on our theological and social contexts–how well we understand science, how we define moral parameters, and how wide or narrow our theological imagination may be.  How we mere mortals think, speak, and write about God must also include much poetry, even prose poetry.  If we are theologically, spiritually, and intellectually honest, we will acknowledge this.  How we mere mortals think, speak, and write about God may or may not age well and/or translate well to other cultures.

Despite certain major differences from the pre-scientific worldview of the eighth-century B.C.E. prophet Amos and the world of 2021 B.C.E., the social, economic, and political context of the Book of Amos bears an unfortunate similarity to the world of 2021.  Economic inequality is increasing.  The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the numbers of poor people while a relative few already extremely wealthy people have become richer.  God still cares deeply about how people treat each other.  God continues to condemn institutionalized inequality.  Many conventionally pious people–religious leaders, especially–are complicit in maintaining this inequality.

Amos of Tekoa continues to speak the words of God to the world of 2021.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 19, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JACQUES ELLUL, FRENCH REFORMED THEOLOGIAN AND SOCIOLOGIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT CELESTINE V, BISHOP OF ROME

THE FEAST OF SAINT DUNSTAN OF CANTERBURY, ABBOT OF GLASTONBURY AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT IVO OF KERMARTIN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ATTORNEY, PRIEST, AND ADVOCATE FOR THE POOR

THE FEAST OF GEORG GOTTFRIED MULLER, GERMAN-AMERICAN MORAVIAN MINISTER AND COMPOSER

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God’s Case Against Israel, Part III: Israel’s Treachery   Leave a comment

Above:  Doves (Hosea 7:11)

Image in the Public Domain

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READING HOSEA, PART VI

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Hosea 6:7-8:14

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Understanding this reading in textual context requires backing up to at least Hosea 6:4.  For a refresher, I refer you, O reader, to the previous post in this series.

Hosea 6:7-8:14 contains some references from a later period, after the Fall of Samaria in 722 B.C.E.  These references to Judah (6:11, 8:14) relate to the text to the (southern) Kingdom of Judah when it was declining.

According to this and other prophetic texts, alliances with powerful and dubious neighbors constituted infidelity to and treason against God.  The references to the Egyptians were odd, given that the (northern) Kingdom of Israel entered into alliances with Aram and Assyria.  At the time of Hosea 1:1, the main regional conflict was Aram versus Assyria.  However, Judah did become a vassal of Egypt (2 Kings 23:31f).

That matter aside, divine chastisement, designed to bring about repentance, had not done so.  Therefore, the time for punishment had arrived.

Hosea 7:3-7 makes sense if one considers royal succession in the (northern) Kingdom of Israel during the final quarter-century of the that realm:

  1. Jeroboam II (r. 788-747 B.C.E.) had died.  (See 2 Kings 14:23-29.)
  2. Zechariah (r. 747 B.C.E.), his son, succeeded him.  Zechariah reigned for about six months.  (See 2 Kings 15:8-12.)
  3. Shallum (r. 747 B.C.E.) overthrew Zechariah then reigned for about a month.  (See 2 Kings 15:13-16.)
  4. Menahem (r. 747-737 B.C.E.) overthrew Shallum.  (See 2 Kings 15:17-22.)
  5. Pekahiah (r. 737-735 B.C.E.), his son, succeeded him.  (See 2 Kings 15:23-26.)
  6. Pekah (r. 735-732 B.C.E.) overthrew Pekahiah.  (See 2 Kings 15:27-31.)
  7. Hoshea (r. 732-722 B.C.E.) overthrew Pekah and became the last King of Israel.  (See 2 Kings 17:1f.)

Two dynasties and four kings of Israel fell in twenty-five years.  Six Kings of Israel came and went.  Two kings without dynasties fell.  The (northern) Kingdom of Israel did not endure.

They sow wind,

And they shall reap the whirlwind–

Standing stalks devoid of ears

And yielding no flour.

If they did yield any,

Strangers shall devour it.

–Hosea 8:7, TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

Assyrians did devour it.

The two calves of Samaria, at Bethel and Dan (1 Kings 12:26-33), dated to the reign (928-907 B.C.E.) of Jeroboam I.  (See 1 Kings 11:26-14:20.)  King Jeroboam I, for political reasons, did not want any of his subjects making pilgrimages to the Temple in Jerusalem, the capital of the (southern) Kingdom of Judah.  The two calves, therefore, were substitutes for the Temple in Jerusalem.

I reject your calf, Samaria!

I am furious with them!

Will they ever be capable of purity?

For it was Israel’s doing;

It was only made by a joiner,

It is not a god.

No, the calf of Samaria shall be

Reduced to splinters!

–Hosea 8:5-6, TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

Hosea 8:1-14 may, in its final form, be the product of Judean editing of an extant text.  One feasible interpretation of 8:3-6 is that all the kings of the (northern) Kingdom of Israel (from Jeroboam I to Hoshea) were as illegitimate as the golden calves at Bethel and Dan.  One who has read of the northern monarchs may recognize the pattern of dynasties rising and falling.  I hold open the possibility that the original version of the Book of Hosea included at least some of this material.  The final version of 8:14, bearing the stamp of Judean editing, updated for a new (now ancient) context, provided no comfort.

Israel has ignored his Maker

And built temples

(And Judah has fortified many cities).

So I will set fire to his cities,

And it shall consume their fortresses.

TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

It happened twice, in 722 and 586 B.C.E.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 17, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THOMAS BRADBURY CHANDLER, ANGLICAN PRIEST; HIS SON-IN-LAW, JOHN HENRY HOBART, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF NEW YORK; AND HIS GRANDSON, WILLIAM HOBART HARE, APOSTLE TO THE SIOUX AND EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY BISHOP OF NIOBRARA THEN SOUTH DAKOTA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CATERINA VOLPICELLI, FOUNDRESS OF THE SERVANTS OF THE SACRED HEART; SAINT LUDOVICO DA CASORIA, FOUNDER OF THE GRAY FRIARS OF CHARITY AND COFOUNDER OF THE GRAY SISTERS OF SAINT ELIZABETH; AND SAINT GIULIA SALZANO, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE CATECHETICAL SISTERS OF THE SACRED HEART

THE FEAST OF CHARLES HAMILTON HOUSTON AND THURGOOD MARSHALL, ATTORNEYS AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVISTS

THE FEAST OF DONALD COGGAN, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT IVAN ZIATYK, POLISH UKRAINIAN GREEK CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1952

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The Reigns of Kings Abijah/Abijam and Asa of Judah   Leave a comment

Above:  King Abijah/Abijam of Judah

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXVIII

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1 Kings 15:1-24

2 Chronicles 13:1-16:14

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O LORD, your word is everlasting;

it stands firm in the heavens.

Your faithfulness remains from one generation to another;

you established the earth, and it abides.

By your decree these continue to this day,

for all things are your servants.

–Psalm 119:89-91, The Book of Common Prayer (1979)

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King Rehoboam of Judah (Reigned 928-911 B.C.E.)

King Abijah/Abijam of Judah (Reigned 911-908 B.C.E.)

King Asa of Judah (Reigned 908-867 B.C.E.)

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The reign of King Rehoboam of Judah (1 Kings 12:1-15; 1 Kings 14:21-31; 2 Chronicles 10:1-12:16) was undistinguished, to be polite.  It included the division of the united monarchy and humiliation by a Pharaoh.

The brief reign of King Abijah/Abijam of Judah was also undistinguished, except by sin and warfare, mainly.  Yet the author of 2 Chronicles emphasized that the divine promise to King David remained in effect, and that God granted Judah victory over Israel and King Jeroboam I in combat.

The evaluation of King Asa of Judah is somewhat positive, in contrast to those of his two immediate predecessors.  We read of his long reign, of his faithfulness to God, of his religious reforms, of his war against King Baasha of Israel, and of his failure to trust God during that war.  We also read of King Asa’s unjust actions in reaction against a prophetic critique in 2 Chronicles 16.

We read:

…yet Asa’s heart was undivided as long as he lived.

–2 Chronicles 15:17b, The New American Bible (1991)

Really?  We also read:

“Because you relied on the king of Aram and did not rely on the LORD, your God, the army of the king of Aram has escaped your hand.”

–2 Chronicles 16:7, The New American Bible (1991)

Furthermore, we read:

But even in his sickness he did not seek the LORD, but only the physicians.

–2 Chronicles 16:12b, The New American Bible (1991)

Make up your mind, Chronicler!

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 25, 2020 COMMON ERA

PROPER 25:  THE TWENTY-FIRST SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF PHILIPP NICOLAI, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT PROCLUS, ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE; AND SAINT RUSTICUS, BISHOP OF NARBONNE

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The Conclusions of the Reigns of Kings Rehoboam of Judah and Jeroboam I of Israel, with the Fall of the House of Jeroboam I   Leave a comment

Above:  King Rehoboam of Judah

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXVII

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1 Kings 14:1-31

1 Kings 15:1-8

1 Kings 15:25-32

2 Chronicles 12:1-16

2 Chronicles 13:1-21

Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 47:23-25

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Solomon rested with his ancestors,

and left behind him one of his sons,

broad in folly and lacking in sense,

Rehoboam, whose policy drove the people to revolt.

Then Jeroboam son of Nebat led Israel into sin

and started Ephraim on its sinful ways.

Their sins increased more and more,

until they were exiled from their land.

For they sought out every kind of wickedness,

until vengeance came upon them.

–Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 47:23-25, The New Revised Standard Version with the Apocrypha (1989)

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King Rehoboam of Judah (Reigned 928-911 B.C.E.)

King Jeroboam I of Israel (Reigned 928-907 B.C.E.)

King Abijah/Abijam of Judah (Reigned 911-908 B.C.E.)

King Nadab of Israel (Reigned 907-906 B.C.E.)

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The New American Bible–Revised Edition (2011) does not mention Jeroboam I by name in Ecclesiasticus/Sirach/Wisdom of Ben Sira 47.  That translation describes him as

the one who should not be remembered.

Both mentioning and not mentioning Jeroboam I by name in Ecclesiasticus/Sirach/Wisdom of Ben Sira 47 are justifiable.  In fact, Ben Sira did not name either Rehoboam or Jeroboam I.  No, Ben Sira substituted a synonym for 

broad, open place

for Rehoboam and 

let his name not be mentioned

for Jeroboam I.  Nevertheless, as I read in Volume V (1997) of The New Interpreter’s Bible, the present Hebrew text contains the names of both monarchs.  And Ecclesiasticus/Sirach/Wisdom of Ben Sira exists in both Hebrew and Greek versions.

1 Kings 14 would have us believe that King David kept commandments and followed God with all his heart, doing only what was right.  Biblical stories of King David are fresh in my memory.  I do not know what version God, according to the prophet Ahijah, had read or heard.  It must have been a truncated, nostalgic version.

Moving on….

After nearly twenty-two years of King Jeroboam I and about two years of King Nadab, the first dynasty of the northern Kingdom of Israel fell and a bloodbath ensued.  The theme of divine retribution via domestic and foreign troubles played out, according to the texts.  The same theme played out in Judah, in the context of King Rehoboam, in 1 Kings 14 and 2 Chronicles 12.

King Jeroboam I also fought a war against King Abijah, son of King Rehoboam, in violation of the truce in 1 Kings 12:24.

The saga of Israel and Judah was far from over.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 24, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ROSA PARKS, AFRICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

THE FEAST OF FRITZ EICHENBERG, GERMAN-AMERICAN QUAKER WOOD ENGRAVER

THE FEAST OF HENRY CLAY SHUTTLEWORTH, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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The Beginning of the Reign of King Rehoboam of Judah, with the Division of the Kingdom of Israel   3 comments

Above:  Jeroboam’s Sacrifice at Bethel, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXV

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1 Kings 12:1-33

2 Chronicles 10:1-11:23

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He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind;

And the foolish shall be servant to the wise of heart.

–Proverbs 11:29, The Holy Scriptures (1917)

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King Rehoboam of Judah (Reigned 928-911 B.C.E.)

King Jeroboam I of Israel (Reigned 928-907 B.C.E.)

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“My father imposed a heavy yoke on you, and I will add to your yoke; my father flogged you with whips, but I will flog you with scorpions.”

–Rehoboam in 1 Kings 12:11, TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures (1985)

With that attitude, no wonder a rebellion succeeded!  No wonder Jeroboam, back from exile in Egypt (see 1 Kings 11:40), became King Jeroboam I of Israel!

Jeroboam I’s golden calves at Bethel and Dan were political and religious.  He did not want his subjects making sacrifices in Jerusalem, in the Kingdom of Judah.  These golden calves influenced the telling of the story in Exodus 32.  The words of Aaron in Exodus 32:8 and those of Jeroboam I in 1 Kings 12:28 are even identical.  The agenda in both passages was pro-Temple:  making sacrifices elsewhere constituted idolatry.  Exodus 32 projected the story of Jeroboam I’s cultic sites backward in time.

Both Jeroboam I and Rehoboam consolidated their power and went on to receive negative reviews from Biblical authors.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 24, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ROSA PARKS, AFRICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

THE FEAST OF FRITZ EICHENBERG, GERMAN-AMERICAN QUAKER WOOD ENGRAVER

THE FEAST OF HENRY CLAY SHUTTLEWORTH, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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The Death and Legacy of King Solomon   Leave a comment

Above:  Icon of King Solomon

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXIV

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1 Kings 11:41-42

2 Chronicles 9:29-31

Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 47:12-22

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Give the King your justice, O God,

and your righteousness to the King’s Son;

That he may rule your people righteously

and the poor with justice;

That the mountains may bring prosperity to the people,

and the little hills bring righteousness.

–Psalm 72:1-3, The Book of Common Prayer (1979)

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The accounts in 1 Kings 11 and 2 Chronicles 9 are brief and to the point.  The text in Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 47 is more interesting reading.  It is a lament for the potential King Solomon wasted.  That text also emphasizes the faithfulness of God–in this case, to the Davidic Dynasty.  People sin and suffer the consequences of their sins.  God remains faithful.

I write these posts to be universal, not bound by time and space.  I frequently restrict my choice of names to the material from the passage or passages.  I write these posts to be universal, therefore never at risk of becoming so dated as to be become irrelevant with the passage of time.  In so doing, I like to apply timeless principles which are, by definition, always germane.

Any leader of a nation-state, province, state, town, city, county, kingdom, et cetera, has certain duties.  These include making wise decisions and improving the common good.  Perhaps the most basic duty is to leave the nation-state, province, state, town, city, county, kingdom, or whatever is is better than he or she found it.

Solomon failed as a monarch and a leader.  Generations of people paid the high price for his failure.

May all in authority decide and govern wisely, for the common, intergenerational good.  May those who will not so decide and govern leave office as soon as possible.  May those who will so decide and govern replace them as soon as possible.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 23, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES OF JERUSALEM, BROTHER OF JESUS

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King Solomon, Women, and Violence   Leave a comment

Above:  King Solomon

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXIII

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1 Kings 11:1-40

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Your word is a lantern to my feet

and a light upon my path.

I have sworn and am determined

to keep your righteous judgments.

–Psalm 119:105-106, The Book of Common Prayer (1979)

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Or not.

King Solomon committed idolatry and contended with foes, foreign and domestic.  Notably, the future King Jeroboam I of the (northern) Kingdom of Israel rose up in rebellion against King Solomon.  Jeroboam, in charge of some of the forced labor, hardly had clean hands.

1 Kings 11, reflecting a theological agenda born out of hindsight, understands royal idolatry to have caused the united kingdom’s troubles and to have led to the division of the kingdom.  I, reading the text as a historian with a strong sense of social justice, conclude that the text’s theological agenda is somewhat correct.  The worship of wealth maintained forced labor, which increased discontent and fostered domestic rebellion.  The decision of King Rehoboam, the immediate successor to Solomon, to continue forced labor, was the last straw in Chapter 12.  As for foreign enemies, any potentate had foes outside his borders.  Proper diplomacy minimized their number and increased the number of allies, though.  And some foreign leaders should have been enemies, not allies.  

I understand that the writing of certain sources and the cutting and pasting of them into composite works occurred in the context of grief for loss of national greatness.  I grasp that certain theological assumptions informed that writing of history.  I do not share all of those theological assumptions.

However, I still recognize much of contemporary value in 1 Kings 11.  Leaders reap what they sow.  Their people  and people in foreign lands also reap what the leaders sow.  May all in authority govern wisely, for the sake of all of us.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 23, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES OF JERUSALEM, BROTHER OF JESUS

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Posted October 23, 2020 by neatnik2009 in 1 Kings 11, 1 Kings 12, Psalm 119

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The Visit of the Queen of Sheba   Leave a comment

Above:  The Tomb of King Hiram of Tyre, by Charles William Meredith von de Velde

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LXII

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1 Kings 10:1-29

2 Chronicles 9:1-28

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The earth, O LORD, is full of your love;

instruct me in your statutes.

–Psalm 119:64, The Book of Common Prayer (1979)

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I intend the quote from Psalm 119 partially as a counterpoint to the texts from 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles.

Sheba was Sabea, on the southwestern corner of the Arabian peninsula.  The strategically-located Sabea controlled access to the Sea of Aden from the Red Sea.  The queen was in Jerusalem to meet a potential trading partner. The story of her state visit flows from the end of 1 Kings 9 and 2 Chronicles 8, and flows into accounts of extreme wealth late in 1 Kings 10 and 2 Chronicles 9.  The story of the state visit also builds up King Solomon’s reputation before the turmoil of 1 Kings 11 and 12 and 2 Chronicles 10 and 11.

In ancient societies without a strong middle class, one could not accumulate extreme wealth without exploiting people and perpetuating their exploitation.  Biblical authors have already told us that King Solomon used slavery and forced labor.

King Solomon’s court does not impress me.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 22, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF FREDERICK PRATT GREEN, BRITISH METHODIST MINISTER, POET, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF EMILY HUNTINGTON MILLER, U.S. METHODIST AUTHOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF KATHARINA VON SCHLEGAL, GERMAN LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PAUL TILLICH, GERMAN-AMERICAN LUTHERAN THEOLOGIAN

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King Solomon’s Organization of the Kingdom   1 comment

Above:  King Solomon, by Simeon Solomon

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1-2 SAMUEL, 1 KINGS, 2 KINGS 1-21, 1 CHRONICLES, AND 2 CHRONICLES 1-33

PART LVI

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1 Kings 4:1-28 (Protestant)

1 Kings 4:1-5:8 (Jewish and Roman Catholic)

3 Kingdoms 4:1-5:8 (Eastern Orthodox)

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He shall rule from sea to sea,

and from the River to the ends of the earth.

–Psalm 72:8, The Book of Common Prayer (1979)

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The material I read for this post is the type of content that makes many eyes glaze over.  Yes, the list of officials is a composite from different periods of King Solomon’s reign.  So be it.  Yes, the material lacks a narrative structure.  This material tells us much about the governance of the united Kingdom of Israel under King Solomon.

King Solomon weakened tribal power and centralized power in Jerusalem.  The twelve prefects had authority over jurisdictions defined by economic capacities, not tribes.

King Solomon favored Judeans first.  He took care of them and himself before he took care of others.

1 Kings 4:20 tells us that the people were content.  If we fast forward to Chapter 11, though, we read that many people, especially in ten of the twelve tribes, were discontent.  One who knows the narrative of 1 Kings understands the link of that discontent to the rebellion and secession in Chapter 12.

One should read 1 Kings 4:1-28/4:1-5:8 in the context of later material in 1 Kings.  Hindsight is an essential element in the book, after all.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 21, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE MCGOVERN, U.S. SENATOR AND STATESMAN; AND HIS WIFE, ELEANOR MCGOVERN, HUMANITARIAN

THE FEAST OF DAVID MORITZ MICHAEL, GERMAN-AMERICAN MORAVIAN MUSICIAN AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF JAMES W. C. PENNINGTON, AFRICAN-AMERICAN CONGREGATIONALIST AND PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, EDUCATOR, AND ABOLITIONIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT LAURA OF SAINT CATHERINE OF SIENA, FOUNDRESS OF THE WORKS OF THE INDIANS AND THE CONGREGATION OF MISSIONARY SISTERS OF IMMACULATE MARY AND OF SAINT CATHERINE OF SIENA

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Posted October 21, 2020 by neatnik2009 in 1 Kings 1, 1 Kings 11, 1 Kings 12, 1 Kings 4, 1 Kings 5, Psalm 72

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Divisiveness   1 comment

Above:   Rehoboam, by Hans Holbein the Younger

Image in the Public Domain

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Blessed Lord, who caused all holy Scriptures to be written for our learning:

Grant us so to hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them,

that we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of life,

which you have given us in our Savior Jesus Christ,  who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

The Book of Common Prayer (1979), page 236

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1 Kings 12:1-20

Psalm 119:57-64

Romans 7:7-13

John 7:40-44

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The Law of God is holy; both the Psalmist and St. Paul the Apostle agree to that proposition in two of the assigned readings for today.  Yet St. Paul admits that he also finds the definition of sin that the Law proves to be a temptation to sin.  This passage precedes the famous portion of scripture in which the Apostle confesses that he knows the difference between right and wrong yet often commits the latter, even though he wants to do the former.  He is divided within himself.

In 1 Kings 12 the foolishness of the newly crowned King Rehoboam leads to the division of the Kingdom of Israel.  He ends up as the King of Judah instead.  So begins the decline of the realm King Saul once led.  We know via hindsight that both kingdoms will fall and ten tribes will become lost.

We also read of division in John 7.  Is Jesus the Messiah?  Or is he a blasphemer?  His life is certainly at risk.

As David Ackerman writes in Beyond the Lectionary (2013), unity does not require unanimity.  In the Christian context Jesus is the source of unity and the Christian Church

is a group of unlike-minded people who live out their faith and practice discipleship together.

–Page 96

Yet frequently one reads and/or hears of and encounters denominations and congregations formed or divided by the quest for like-mindedness and founded by the act of schism.  Even those who seek to reject denominationalism create new denominations, although many members of officially “undenominational” bodies object to that statement.

Part of the problem of divisiveness is that it is inherently human.  We like to keep company with people similar to ourselves.  Although the variety of denominations certainly keeps many people in the Christian fold by providing options, the scandal of denominations is that they divide the body of Christ.  I belong to a denomination–a fairly liberal one, in fact.  I like attending church where nobody will call me a heretic, for I know the sting of hearing that accusation.  Nevertheless, I also understand denominational inertia and am willing to surrender certain minor points of doctrine and practice for the sake of organic unity with a denomination or denominations with which mine is quite similar.  When organic union is not yet an option or never will be, perhaps ecumenism is on the table.  But how common are these attitudes?

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 18, 2017 COMMON ERA

PROPER 6:   THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINTS DELPHINUS OF BORDEAUX, AMANDUS OF BORDEAUX, SEVERINUS OF BORDEAUX, VENERIUS OF MILAN, AND CHROMATIUS OF AQUILEIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS

THE FEAST OF ADOLPHUS NELSON, SWEDISH-AMERICAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF ANSON DODGE, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM BINGHAM TAPPAN, U.S. CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, POET, AND HYMN WRITER

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Adapted from this post:

https://ordinarytimedevotions.wordpress.com/2017/06/18/devotion-for-proper-17-ackerman/

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