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Psalm 1: The Blessed Man   Leave a comment

READING THE BOOK OF PSALMS

PART I

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Psalm 1

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I have studied the Book of Psalms for decades.  I started by keeping notebooks nobody else saw.  I have been blogging through lectionaries since 2010.  I have also taught some iteration of a class on the Revised Common Lectionary since August 2015.

“Reading the Book of Psalms” is a companion project to the Septuagint Psalter Project (2017), all posts of which exist here at BLOGA THEOLOGICA.  The main organizing principle at the Septuagint Psalter Project is the pattern for reading through the Book of Psalms in thirty-one days (morning and evening) in The Book of Common Prayer (1979).  The plan for this new project follows a combination of factors, though.  Two texts may have originally been one text, may have a similar theme, may be nearly identical, et cetera.  A spreadsheet I have created guides this project.

I invite you, O reader, to join me on this guided tour of the Book of Psalms.

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The placement of the text labeled Psalm 1 is logical and intentional.  Psalm 1 is the summary of the Book of Psalms.

The first verse opens with a beatitude.  The man who studies the torah and keeps its ethical obligations is, depending on the translation, blessed, happy, or fortunate.  He is a man in the narrow definition of “man,” in the original context.  Psalm 1 comes from a time before women studied the torah.  The blessed man is stable while the wicked are unstable and in motion.  When they do find a stable posture and a place to dwell, they are in the wrong place.

The definition of torah matters.  Narrowly, it refers to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.  But, in the Book of Psalms, the definition is broad.  The definition of torah is divine instruction, with law built in.  So, to return to content from the previous paragraph, the blessed man stands in contrast to the wicked, who pursue dubious moral choices in life.  Their dubious moral choices exist outside divine instruction.

One may do well to ponder the Beatitudes in Matthew 5 and the Beatitudes and Woes in Luke 6.  Those beatitudes (and woes) are countercultural.  They are not upside-down.  No, they reveal that the world’s conventional wisdom is upside-down.  Likewise, the beatitude in Psalm 1:1 performs the same function.  The pious may not seem to be blessed, but they are blessed.  And the wicked may appear to be fortunate or happy, but they are, in words of Luke 6, receiving their consolation.

Psalm 1 also likens the blessed man to a tree planted by streams of water in a desert.  Water is precious.  It is especially precious in a desert.  In that setting, a tree planted by streams of water has the source of sustenance it needs to thrive.

For the sake of context, I tell you, O reader, that I have just completed a study of the Book of Job.  So, that work of wisdom literature is fresh in my mind.  The wind bags who posed as friend of Job sound like many verses in Psalms and Proverbs.  All four of them sound like Psalm 1, with its message that the righteous flourish and the wicked perish.

Given that scripture is one context in which to interpret scripture, how ought we to interpret Psalm 1, then?  I propose that we start with the particulars of Biblical blessedness.  Such blessedness has outward manifestations.  Such blessedness does not preclude unjust suffering, as many psalms, the Book of Job, the Book of Tobit, the example of Jesus, the example of St. Paul the Apostle, the examples of a great cloud of martyrs, and the examples of other witnesses attest.  The water of divine instruction enables the blessed man, woman, or child to bear much spiritual fruit.  The prosperity in Psalm 1 is not evidence of selfish ambition.  No, this prosperity affirms that the righteous and the blessed have tapped into God, on whom they rely.  Their life is in God.  That is their prosperity.

“Righteousness” is another word that requires definition.  Biblically, a righteous person has right relationships with God, others, and self.  Righteousness is synonymous with justice.  Righteousness is tangible.  To return to my immediately prior Bible study project, the four pneumatic pains in every part of the human anatomy are not righteous.  They lack right relationship with God and Job, at least.

Psalm 1 is theocentric; God is the core.  God is the source of a blessed person’s identity and strength.  The blessed man, woman, or child is like a flourishing, well-watered tree in a desert.  God does not promise an easy life and material riches.  Yet God does promise never to abandon anyone.  Whether one wants to heed God is an individual matter.  Nevertheless, even those who reject God are not outside the scope of divine love.  Yet, as Psalm 1 attests, the wicked–those who go their own way–choose their path.  To cite a cliché, they lie down in the bed they have made.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 6, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE TENTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT NICHOLAS OF MYRA, BISHOP OF MYRA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ABRAHAM OF KRATIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, BISHOP OF KRATIA, AND HERMIT

THE FEAST OF ALICE FREEMAN PALMER, U.S. EDUCATOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF ANNE ROSS COUSIN, SCOTTISH PRESBYTERIAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF HENRY USTICK ONDERDONK, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF NEW YORK, LITURGIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PHILIP BERRIGAN AND HIS BROTHER, DANIEL BERRIGAN, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS AND SOCIAL ACTIVISTS

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The Hollywood Happy Ending   7 comments

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART XIV

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Job 42:10-17

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I remember the first time I watched The Magnificent Ambersons (1942).  The young Orson Welles had directed the movie, in which the characters’ circumstances were becoming worse.  Then, all the sudden, in the final minutes, came the happy reversal of misfortune.  It felt tacked-on and unsatisfactory.  Welles did not direct that part of the movie.

The last eight verses of the Book of Job remind me of the last few minutes of The Magnificent Ambersons.  Job gets a second family–with the original number of children–and twice as many livestock.  And the justice of God becomes evident.

Or does it?

I am allergic to pat answers to difficult questions.  I react to such answers whether they come from people I know, people of whom I know, Job’s alleged friends, or the epilogue to the Book of Job.  And I have no fear of saying so.

Thank you for joining me on this journey through the Book of Job, O reader.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 5, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE NINTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT CLEMENT OF ALEXANDERIA, FATHER OF CHRISTIAN SCHOLARSHIP

THE FEAST OF SAINT CYRAN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF SAINT NARCYZ PUTZ, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1942

THE FEAST OF NELSON MANDELA, PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA, AND RENEWER OF SOCIETY

THE FEAST OF SAINT NICETIUS OF TRIER, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, AND BISHOP OF TRIER; AND SAINT AREDIUS OF LIMOGES, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF PETER MORTIMER, ANGLO-GERMAN MORAVIAN EDUCATOR, MUSICIAN, AND SCHOLAR; AND GOTTFRIED THEODOR ERXLEBEN, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER AND MUSICOLOGIST

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Posted December 5, 2022 by neatnik2009 in Job 38-42

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God’s Speeches, Job’s Responses, and God’s Address to Eliphaz the Temanite   2 comments

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART XIII

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Job 38:1-42:9

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Careful reading of the text reveals many interesting details.  For example, God contradicts Eliphaz the Temanite in 38:26-27.  In Job 5:10, Eliphaz claims that God sends rain where people can use it:

He sends down rain to the earth,

pours down water on the fields.

The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

Yet God, in chapter 38, asks Job:

Who carves a channel for the downpour,

and hacks a way for the rolling thunder,

so that rain may fall on lands where no one lives,

and the deserts void of human dwelling,

giving drink to the lonely wastes

and making grass spring where everything was dry?

–Job 38:28f, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

The more I read God’s two speeches to Job, the more I dislike them.  They, taken together, constitute a non-answer.  They are not an apology.  Neither do they explain the cause of Job’s suffering.  Job deserves both an explanation and an apology.  He also deserves to hear directly from God what God tells Eliphaz the Temanite:

My wrath has flared against you and your two companions because you have not spoken rightly of Me as did My servant Job.

–Job 42:7, Robert Alter

Job may have spoken presumptuously, but he also spoke honestly, based on his observations of reality.  Job, unlike his alleged friends, had maintained his integrity.  So, Job became a priestly figure who interceded, formally, on behalf of his alleged friends.

Human reconciliation remained possible.

Bernhard Anderson argued that both Job and his alleged friends had committed the same error; they had presumed to know how God does or should work.  That analysis fits 38:2 (“speaking without knowledge”).  It does not fit 42:7-9, however.  Thus, we encounter an interpretive difficulty born of multiple authors.

I still stand with Job.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 4, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE SECOND SUNDAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN OF DAMASCUS AND COSMAS OF MAIUMA, THEOLOGIANS AND HYMNODISTS

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALEXANDER HOTOVITZKY, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1937

THE FEAST OF SAINT BERNARD OF PARMA, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF PARMA

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH MOHR, AUSTRIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST; AND FRANZ GRUBER, AUSTRIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC TEACHER, MUSICIAN, AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARUTHAS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF MAYPHERKAT, AND MISSIONARY TO PERSIA

THE FEAST OF SAINT OSMUND OF SALISBURY, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF SALISBURY

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Elihu’s Speeches   2 comments

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART XII

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Job 32:1-37:24; 28:1-28

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We read that Elihu was livid.  We read that:

He fumed with rage against Job for thinking that he was right and God was wrong; and he was equally angry with the three friends for giving up the argument and thus admitting God had to be unjust.

–Job 32:2b-3, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

Chapters of pneumatic platitudes ensue.  If one was paying attention during the speeches of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, one will recognize the themes.  For example, Job must have sinned, for why else would he be suffering?  God is just, so Job needs to confess his sins and reconcile with God.  This whole terrible situation is Job’s fault.  Or so says Elihu.

Chapter 28, sometimes regarded as being of independent origin and inserted into the book, shares vocabulary with chapter 37, which also refers to the sky.  So, chapter 28 is, according to The Jewish Study Bible, the conclusion of Elihu’s speeches.

Ironically, the last verse describes Job, not Elihu:

And [God] said to man,

“Wisdom?  It is fear of the Lord.

Understanding?–avoidance of evil.

–Job 28:28, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

We never read of Elihu again in the Book of Job.  Good riddance!

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 3, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE SEVENTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY TO THE FAR EAST

THE FEAST OF AMILIE JULIANE, COUNTESS OF SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT, GERMAN LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL TAIT, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAN FRANCISZEK MACHA, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1942

THE FEAST OF M. WOOLSEY STRYKER, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, EDUCATOR, AUTHOR, HYMNAL EDITOR, HYMN WRITER, AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF SOPHIE KOULOMZIN, RUSSIAN-AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATOR

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Zophar the Naamathite’s Third Speech and Job’s Lengthy Discourse   Leave a comment

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART XI

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Job 27:8-23; 29:1-31:40

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Zophar concludes by accusing Job of being wicked.  We know from the prologue that this is a false allegation.

Job’s concluding argument (to continue the metaphor of a hearing or a trial) is plaintive.  It reminds me of experiences some great saints have reported when feeling distant from God.  I do not need to imagine what the main three gas bags in the Book of Job would say to St. John of the Cross, the author of Dark Night of the Soul; I can reread their speeches in the Book of Job.

Originally, God’s answer to Job followed 31:40 immediately.  Yet, at a later time, someone interjected another pneumatic pain, Elihu son of Barachel the Buzite.

We will turn to those speeches next.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 2, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE SIXTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT HORMISDAS, BISHOP OF ROME; AND HIS SON, SILVERIUS, BISHOP OF ROME, AND MARTYR, 537

THE FEAST OF CHANNING MOORE WILLIAMS, EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY BISHOP IN CHINA AND JAPAN

THE FEAST OF GERARD THOMAS NOEL, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER; HIS BROTHER, BAPTIST WRIOTHESLEY NOEL, ANGLICAN PRIEST, ENGLISH BAPTIST EVANGELIST, AND HYMN WRITER; AND HIS NIECE, CAROLINE MARIA NOEL, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JUSTIN HEINRICH KNECHT, GERMAN LUTHERAN ORGANIST, MUSIC TEACHER, AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF MAURA CLARKE AND HER COMPANIONS, U.S. ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS IN EL SALVADOR, DECEMBER 2, 1980

THE FEAST OF SAINT RAFAL CHYLINSKI, POLISH FRANCISCAN ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST

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Bildad the Shuhite’s Third Speech and Job’s Answer   2 comments

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART X

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Job 25:1-27:7

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Bildad’s extolling of the omnipotence of God would be fine in another context.  But he is supposed to console a friend, not lecture or berate that friend.  Job’s sarcastic reply is appropriate:

To one so weak, what a help you are,

for the arm that is powerless, what a rescuer!

What excellent advice you give the unlearned,

never at a loss for a helpful suggestion!

But who are they aimed at, these speeches of yours,

and what spirit is this that comes out of you?

–Job 26:1-4, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

Job is correct to continue to assert his innocence and to accuse the alleged friends of spewing “empty words.”

When I ponder Bildad, Eliphaz, and Zophar, I understand the psychology of these literary characters.  I can name contemporaries like them.  They–and Elihu, too–typify the doubling down on demonstrably false beliefs and statements because admitting the truth would endanger their egos.  Rather than admit to being wrong, they see what they want to see.  They cherry-pick their facts.  They even assemble “alternative facts.”  Reality, however, does not brook “alternative facts.”

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 1, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE FIFTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHARLES DE FOUCAULD, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK AND MARTYR, 1916

THE FEAST OF ALBERT BARNES, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, ABOLITIONIST, AND ALLEGED HERETIC

THE FEAST OF SAINT BRIOC, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT TUDWAL, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT, AND BISHOP OF TREGUIER

THE FEAST OF DOUGLAS LETELL RIGHTS, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, SCHOLAR, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF EDWARD TIMOTHY MICKEY, JR., U.S. MORAVIAN BISHOP AND LITURGIST

THE FEAST OF GEORGE HUGH BOURNE, ANGLICAN PRIEST, HYMN WRITER, AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

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Eliphaz the Temanite’s Third Speech and Job’s Answer   2 comments

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART IX

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Job 22:1-24:25

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Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar are repetitive.  They even repeat themselves.  They even make the same points more than once.  They even keep saying the same things in different ways again and again.  They are more repetitive that Mojo Jojo from The Powerpuff Girls.  However, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar do add new elements on occasion.  For example, Zophar, in his third speech, accuses Job of having a sinful disposition after Job’s denial of their simplistic moral order in which divine retribution is neat and tidy.

Despite the alleged friends’ increasingly shrill and repetitive speeches, Job still wants to litigate his case with God.  And Job is confident that this will happen, and that he will win.  Job, despite his afflictions, affirms divine justice while dreading God.

Fatherless children are robbed of their lands,

and poor men have their cloaks seized as security.

From the towns come the groans of the dying

and the gasp of the wounded man crying for help.

Yet God remains deaf to their appeal.

–Job 24:9, 12, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

Job understands the real world.

The speeches of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar prove that there is a fine line separating theodicy from idiocy.  A critical yet pious realist is preferable to an idiot engaging in theodicy.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 30, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE FOURTH DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT ANDREW THE APOSTLE, MARTYR

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Zophar the Naamathite’s Second Speech and Job’s Answer   Leave a comment

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART VIII

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Job 20:1-21:34

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Cognitive dissonance results when reality conflicts with one’s preconceived ideas.  How does one resolve this dissonance?  If one is wise, one proceeds based on reality.  If one is like Zophar the Naamathite, one falls back on preconceived ideas.

Zophar’s concept of God does not make allowances for God permitting Job to suffer unjustly.  Zophar’s theology belies reality in the Book of Job.  Zophar–along with the other so-called friends–puts God into a box.

Job is correct:

So, what sense is there in your empty consolation?

What nonsense are your answers!

–Job 21:34, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

The world is not fair; Job understands this.  Many wicked people flourish while many pious people struggle.  Yet,

Together now they lie in the dust

with worms for covering.

–Job 21:26, The Jerusalem Bible (1966)

I reject easy answers to difficult questions, such as those in Zophar’s second speech.  These easy answers may affirm one’s imagined theological orthodoxy.  They may bolster one’s ego, too.  But these easy answers will not help one to accept reality.  They are idols, for they stand between one and God.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 29, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE THIRD DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE DAY OF INTERCESSION AND THANKSGIVING FOR THE MISSIONARY WORK OF THE CHURCH

THE FEAST OF FREDERICK COOK ATKINSON, ANGLICAN CHURCH ORGANIST AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF JENNETTE THRELFALL, ENGLISH HYMN WRITER

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Posted November 29, 2022 by neatnik2009 in Job 20-21

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Bildad the Shuhite’s Second Speech and Job’s Answer   Leave a comment

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART VII

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Job 18:1-19:29

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As I have already written, I have no interest in analyzing the Book of Job line by line.  One can read books in which others have done that.  I own some volumes of that sort.  No, I choose to focus on the proverbial forest and to examine a few trees along the way.

My lens as I write this series of posts is intensely personal.  I know the feeling when the bottom falls out of one’s life.  I report two such periods.  I know the feeling of wishing that I were dead, for that would be easier than continuing to live.  Fortunately, I also know the presence of consoling people at such times.

So, I recoil in disgust at air bags such as Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar.  They are also full of something else, which I leave to your imagination, O reader.  This is a family-rated weblog, after all.  Such pneumatic individuals should not only be slow to speak, but silent.  If they cannot say anything helpful, they ought to say nothing.

Instead, such wind bags–in this case, Bildad the Shuhite–torment Job.  They gloat.  They insult him.  They are rude to a suffering, innocent man.  They blame the victim.  And they do so in the name of God.

Job has a relationship with God, whom he correctly blames for the plight.  This complex relationship leads Job to rely on God as his Kinsman-Redeemer/Avenger/Vindicator (19:25).  This is not a prediction of the resurrection of Jesus, despite the Christian tradition of reading Job 19:25 at and near Easter.  No, this is an expectation that God will defend Job’s rights.  God is Job’s only candidate to fulfill this role because the other relatives are dead, and the alleged friends are gas bags.  And, on that day, the alleged friends will, ironically, suffer the judgment they have predicted will befall Job.

False certainty is dangerous.  It harms the falsely certain person, inflicts damage on that person’s victims, and drives people away from God.  In my culture, many people–especially young people–are rejecting organized religion.  They perceive it as an instrument of intolerance and oppression, as well as a mechanism of control.  They are partially correct; antisemitism, racism, homophobia, sexism, nativism, xenophobia and other sins find theological cover in many sectors of organized religion.  These properly morally outraged critics ought not to reject organized religion entirely.  No, they should reject only the segments of organized religion that practice these sins.

An Episcopal priest I know has a wonderful way of speaking to people who claim not to believe in God.  Father Dann asks them to describe the God in whom they do not believe.  Invariably, they describe a version of God in which he does not believe either.

That priest also says that if being a Christian were not an option, he would be a Jobite:  God is.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 28, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE SECOND DAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT STEPHEN THE YOUNGER, DEFENDER OF ICONS

THE FEAST OF ALBERT GEORGE BUTZER, SR., U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF KAMEHAMEHA IV AND EMMA ROOKE, KING AND QUEEN OF HAWAI’I

THE FEAST OF JAMES MILLS THOBURN, ISABELLA THOBURN, AND CLARA SWAIN, U.S. METHODIST MISSIONARIES TO INDIA

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH HOFER AND MICHAEL HOFER, U.S. HUTTERITE CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS AND MARTYRS, 1918

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Eliphaz the Temanite’s Second Speech and Job’s Answer   Leave a comment

READING THE BOOK OF JOB

PART VI

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Job 15:1-17:16

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The best-crafted lies include objectively accurate material; it lends credibility to the lies.  This generalization, adapted for honest yet inaccurate statements, applies.  Eliphaz, for example, accuses Job of flouting piety and having a guilty conscience.  Eliphaz is rude, also.  Eliphaz, not Job, is full of hot air.

Job’s retort to Zophar the Naamathite in 13:5 applies here, too, as well as elsewhere in the Book of Job:

If you would only keep quiet

It would be considered wisdom on your part.

TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures

Does Eliphaz imagine that he is defending God?  Probably.  Yet God requires no human defense.  Any deity who does require a human defense is unworthy of human worship.

Job’s opening lines in his answer to Eliphaz summarizes my reaction to the alleged friends:

I have heard much of this sort,

wretched consolers are you all.

Is there any end to words of hot air,

or what compels you to speak up?

–16:1b-2, Robert Alter

What compels Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar to spew hot air and to call it wisdom?  What compels anyone alive to do the same?  Depending on each circumstance, the answer may vary.  In the bst-case scenarios, the answer is the delusion that one is (a) correct, and (b) helping.  In the worst-case scenarios, the answer is cynical self-interest.

Job’s anguish is evident in his reply.  He needs consolation, not lectures that could come from a hand dryer in a restroom.  His so-called friends are spiteful mockers who have shut their hearts to his plight and their minds to reason.

One need not be spiteful to make unhelpful statements to people in anguish.  Unhelpful statements may come from the desire to console, too.  When one’s life has collapsed, one needs consolation.  One needs for kind people to listen and to be present.  One needs shoulders on which to cry.

In my experience, cats have modeled the ideal response.  When needed, they have been present.  Cats have curled up and been nearby.

Job’s alleged friends should have been real friends.  They should have been like consoling cats.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 27, 2022 COMMON ERA

THE FIRST SUNDAY OF ADVENT, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES INTERCISUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYR, CIRCA 241

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM COOKE AND BENJAMIN WEBB, ANGLICAN PRIESTS AND TRANSLATORS OF HYMNS

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