Archive for the ‘Service Book and Hymnal (1958)’ Tag

Declaring Independence: Moravians, 1849-1922   3 comments

Flag of the United States 1877

Above:  The Flag of the United States of America, 1877

Image in the Public Domain

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LITURGY IN THE MORAVIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA, PART III

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Watch graciously over all governments; establish them in truth and righteousness, and give them thoughts of peace.  Bless the President of the United States and both Houses of Congress; the Governor and Legislature of this Commonwealth, and all others that are in authority; and grant us to lead under them a quiet and a peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.  Teach us to submit ourselves to every ordinance of man for Thy sake; and to seek the peace of the places where we dwell.  Give prosperity, O God, to this land, and salvation to all its people.

Offices of Worship and Hymns (With Tunes) (1891), page 32

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I.  PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION

This post stands in lineage with the Preface, Part I, and Part II.

I wrote Part II of this series in August 2014.  Since then I have been pursuing other projects, but now I return to this series.  I predict that the Liturgy in the Moravian Church in America series will have five installments.  The projected Part IV will cover the Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) (1923), the Moravian Youth Hymnal (1942, 1954, 1956, and 1961), and the Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (1969).  The projected Part V will encompass the Moravian Book of Worship (1995) and Sing to the Lord a New Song:  A New Moravian Songbook (2013).

Part of what I have been doing relative to blogging since August has proven helpful in preparing for the writing of this post and the initial planning of the projected Parts IV and V.  Among my other projects is the Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days at SUNDRY THOUGHTS, my original weblog.  Some of the people I have added to the Ecumenical Calendar have been figures to whom I will refer to in this post and in subsequent posts in this series.  When, for example, I read the name “Mrs. J. Kenneth Pfhol” in the Preface to the Second Edition of the Moravian Youth Hymnal (1954), I know that she was actually Harriet Elizabeth “Bessie” Whittington Pfohl (1881-1971), wife of Bishop John Kenneth Pfohl, Sr. (1874-1967).  And the name of Francis Florentine Hagen (1815-1907) means something to me, for I have also declared him to be a saint recently.

A few notes regarding sources are appropriate.  An invaluable source has been Michael E. Westinghouse’s academic paper, “A Look at Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Liturgy” (December 2011), which he wrote in partial fulfillment of his Master of Arts in Liberal Studies at Wake Forest University.  I found that resource via an Internet search and downloaded the PDF file.  Links to electronic copies of certain books at archive.org populate this post so that you, O reader, will have an opportunity to read those volumes.  Finally, I have included a Bibliography of Hardcopy Sources at the end of this post.

Shall we launch into the material without further ado, O reader?

II.  ESTABLISHING AN AMERICAN MORAVIAN IDENTITY

 Context and Theoretical Approach

Transitions are difficult times, for being betwixt and between, neither one thing or another, is inherently awkward.  That is true of individuals, as those familiar with adolescence understand.  It also applies to institutions, such as those making the transition from one language to another.  The Moravian Church in America struggled with that issue as it contended with problems germane to cultural assimilation and related questions of identity in the marketplace of ecclesiastical ideas in the United States of America.  The new shape of American Moravian identity and practice arose from the old and remained easily recognizable as Moravian.

Certain old ways were ceasing to be feasible.  Moravian communal living, which had not prevented profitable enterprises among members of the Unitas Fratrum, had made maintaining a rigorous worship schedule possible.  Yet, by the late 1850s, as many of the United Brethren accepted mainstream employment and kept schedules consistent with it, attendance at services plummeted.  A contributing factor to this change in church attendance was the decline in the number of German speakers and the increase in the number of English speakers.  Many liturgical resources were in German, hence irrelevant to English speakers.  The production of German-language hymnals continued, with a new hymnbook (containing 836 texts) in 1848 and its revision rolling off the presses in 1885.  A constituency for such resources existed for some time, obviously, but it was shrinking.  In addition, many English-speaking Moravians departed the Unitas Fratrum for congregations of other Protestant communions, such as the Baptists and the Methodists, which had simpler forms of worship.

During much of the nineteenth century U.S. Moravian worship resources were reprints or adaptations of books from England and Germany.  The first original U.S. Moravian liturgies and hymnals debuted in the 1860s and 1870s, a few years after 1857, when the global Moravian Church, accepting an American proposal, restructured itself and granted home rule in the provinces.  American Moravian provincial synods, using their domestic autonomy, declared liturgical independence and innovated within their tradition.

U.S. Lutheran minister Philip H. Pfatteicher, writing about the transition from the Service Book and Hymnal (1958) to the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), including the Contemporary Worship series of ten temporary and provisional volumes in which liturgists experimented from 1969 to 1976, observed:

The revolution of the 1960s and the early ’70s was flawed because, as Sigurdur Nordal wisely observes in another context, “The preservation of old values is an indispensable counterpart to the creation of the new.”  The church needed by trial and occasional error to come to understand that the new is not always found in opposition to the old but arises from the old as its natural growth and development.  Stability and continuity are essential elements of catholic Christianity.

Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context (1990), page 10

Likewise, U.S. Moravian liturgical innovation during the late 1800s arose from old practices and adapted to then-contemporary circumstances.

New Hymnals and Liturgies

Prior to 1851

The first Moravian liturgical book anyone printed in America was the 1801 hymnal (with the supplement of 1808) of the British Province, in 1813.  A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren–New and Revised Edition (composite, 1809) was just one resource Moravians in the United States used in worship.  There was also the British Province’s revised hymnal of 1826, A Collection of Hymns for the the Use of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren–New and Revised Edition.  And there were, of course, German-language resources. Then, in 1849, the British Province published another hymnal, the Liturgy and Hymns for the Use of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren, or Unitas Fratrum–A New and Revised Edition, with 1260 hymns.

The Liturgy and Hymns for the Use of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren, or Unitas Fratrum–A New and Revised Edition (1851)

Two years later the American adaptation of the 1849 British Liturgy and Hymns debuted.  The U.S. version dropped some hymns, added others, and offered 1200 hymns.  It was a text-only volume, in accordance with Moravian practice at the time.  The traditional services, such as the Church Litany, populated the front of the book, but the Litany had been falling out of favor in America.

The Hymns and Offices of Worship, for Use in Schools; With an Appendix of Tunes (1866) and the Offices of Worship and Hymns, Principally for Use in Schools; With an Appendix of Tunes (1872)

Reinvigoration of U.S. Moravian worship began in 1864, with the authorization of the creation of new liturgies.  The resulting volume was the Hymns and Offices of Worship, for Use in Schools; With an Appendix of Tunes (1866).  The second edition, renamed the Offices of Worship and Hymns, Principally for Use in Schools; With an Appendix of Tunes, debuted six years later.  The Offices of Worship marked a turning point in American Moravian liturgical practices.  The first volume, intended for occasional use  in informal settings, such as Sunday Schools and boarding schools, became popular in more contexts, such as churches and homes, hence the slight difference in the title in the second edition.  Peter Wolle (1792-1871), whose Moravian Tune Book, technically Hymn Tunes Used in the Church of the United Brethren (1836) had edited traditional Moravian tunes to make them sound less foreign to native-born Americans, served on the committee for the first edition.  One goal of the 1866 edition was that Moravian children would, to quote The Book of Common Prayer with regard to scripture in the collect for Proper 28, to “read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest” the 360 hymns included in the volume and grow up with a better grasp of Moravian hymnody than many Moravian adults had.  The first edition introduced seven Offices of Worship (drawn heavily from the Bible) for use alongside the traditional rites.  The second edition (1872) revised some of those Offices and added four more.

The Offices of Worship stood within tradition and departed from it simultaneously.  Including hymn tunes and texts (seldom on the same page) departed from the then-contemporary practice yet approached a tradition the Moravian Church had abandoned in the seventeenth century.  Also, the Offices of Worship, which were consistent with traditional rituals in content were new in structure.  Furthermore, the 1866 and 1872 books standardized the American hymn tunes which many congregations had been singing for years.  The hymnal portion of the 1872 Offices of Worship, consisting of 365 texts, was small by Moravian standards (1260 in the 1849 British hymnal, 1200 in the 1851 American hymnal, et cetera), but it was a start.  And the third edition, that of 1891, contained 1564 hymns.

The Liturgy and Hymns of the American Province of the Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church (1876 and 1890)

The Liturgy and Hymns of the American Province of the Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church (1876) drew from German rites, ecumenical hymnody, and the Offices of Worship.  The Liturgy and Hymns, which existed in early and late versions, became more extensive by 1890, when it came to include ten Communion Liturgies and fourteen Liturgical Services for the Church Seasons, including two for Sunday Evening.  These Communion Liturgies and Liturgical Services included designated hymns for the congregation to sing.  The rubrics for the Liturgical Services gave ministers discretion to use those rites in lieu of the traditional Church Litany.  The 1876/1890 book was the first really American Moravian formal liturgy and hymnal.  It also reflected the influence of the Oxford Movement within the Anglican Communion and established the template for the beloved Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) (1923).  930 hymns (words only), 28 doxologies and benedictions (also words only), and an index completed the volume.

The Offices of Worship and Hymns (With Tunes) (1891)

The next liturgical development was the Offices of Worship and Hymns (With Tunes) (1891), which returned to the long-abandoned Moravian tradition of pairing words and tunes in hymnals consistently.  This book, which arranged the tunes by meter, provided the tune (usually without words inside the systems) then the hymns one could sing to it.  This, the third and greatly expanded edition in the Offices of Worship series of volumes, was for use in churches, homes (at morning and evening worship), schools, et cetera.  Whereas the first edition (1866) had offered 360 hymns and the second edition (1872) had contained 365 hymns, the third edition boasted 1564 hymns, indexed thoroughly in various indices.  Furthermore, the 1891 Offices of Worship offered 31 services, including one for a national holiday, in contrast to the seven services in the 1866 book and the eleven services in the 1872 volume.  The 1891 Offices of Worship resembled the 1876/1890 Liturgy and Hymns, down to the tables for the festivals and the lectionary for the church year.

The Liturgy and Offices of Worship and Hymns of the American Province of the Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church (1908)

The merged form of the Offices of Worship (1891) and the Liturgy from the Liturgy and Hymns (1876 and 1890) was the Liturgy and Offices of Worship and Hymns of the American Province of the Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church (1908).  Two standard works became one.  The Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) (1923) succeeded it in 1923.

One should not imagine, however, that adherence to the official Moravian rituals, even allowing for substituting another rite for the Church Litany, was uniform in the late 1800s and early 1900s.  Sometimes extemporaneous prayer replaced litanies, for example.  Furthermore, congregations adapted liturgical practices.  The Reverend Otto Dreydoppel, Jr., in Chapter 1 of The Moravian Book of Worship Manual for Worship Planners (1995), quoted Bishop Edwin W. Kortz, who said that the Moravian Church

is not so much a liturgical church as it is a free church with a long and rich tradition of liturgical prayer.

–page 13

That description is consistent with the liturgical deviations I mentioned earlier in this paragraph.

III.  CONCLUSION

Some of the old problems persisted after the publication of the Offices of Worship (1866, 1872, and 1891) and the Liturgy and Hymns (1876 and 1890).  Although the Offices of Worship and Hymns (1891) had congregations singing hymns such as “Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me” in particular services, the Reverend Francis Florentine Hagen (1815-1907), a great Moravian composer, found cause to complain about the detrimental effects of singing German chorale tunes badly upon the life of the Church in 1893:

By forcing upon English-speaking American Churches foreign tunes, which but few are able to sing properly, we estrange from our services the very people among whom God has placed us to work.  Need we wonder at our stunted growth?

–Quoted in The Music of the Moravian Church in America, edited by Nola Reed Knouse (2008), page 255

The saga of liturgy and hymnody in the Moravian Church in America is far from over.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 19, 2015 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT NERSES I THE GREAT, CATHOLICOS OF THE ARMENIAN APOSTOLIC CHURCH; AND SAINT MESROP, BIBLE TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF BERNARD BARTON, ENGLISH QUAKER POET AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT ELEUTHERIUS OF TOURNAI, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF MILES COVERDALE, BIBLE TRANSLATOR

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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HARDCOPY SOURCES

The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church Together with The Psalter or Psalms of David According to the Use of The Episcopal Church.  New York, NY:  Oxford University Press, 1979.  Reprint, 2007.

Burcaw, Robert T., ed.  The Moravian Book of Worship Manual for Worship Planners.  Bethlehem, PA:  Interprovincial Board of Publications and Communications, 1995.

Engel, Katherine Carte.  Religion and Profit:  Moravians in Early America.  Philadelphia, PA:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Frank, Albert H.  Companion to the Moravian Book of Worship.  Winston-Salem, NC:  Moravian Music Foundation, 2004.

Hutton, James E.  A History of the Moravian Church.  London, England, UK:  Moravian Publication Office, 1909.  Reprint.

Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum).  Bethlehem, PA:  Moravian Church in America, 1923.

Knouse, Nola Reed, ed.  The Music of the Moravian Church in America.  Rochester, NY:  University of Rochester Press, 2008.

Pfatteicher, Philip H.  Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1990.

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And All His Works: U.S. Lutheran Baptismal Vows, 1917-2006   2 comments

Liturgy Books

Above:  Selected Works from My Liturgy Library, July 27, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XX

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Dost thou renounce the devil, and all his works, and all his ways?

Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church (1917), page 234

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I.  INTRODUCTION

Among the issues I encountered while comparing U.S. Lutheran service books was baptismal vows–especially renunciations.  Christians–not all of them, to be sure–have been renouncing the devil during baptismal rituals since at least the 200s.  There have been permutations of this in the U.S. Lutheran liturgies since 1917.

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II.  THE COMMON SERVICE BOOK OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH (1917)

The Common Service Book (1917) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/17/truly-meet-right-and-salutary-the-common-service-in-the-united-lutheran-church-in-america-and-the-american-lutheran-church-1918-1930/), being fairly traditional in its baptismal rites, is a good place to begin.

The Minister asks the sponsors of an infant to

renounce the devil, and all his works, and all his ways,

to affirm the Apostles’ Creed, to instruct the child

in the Word of God,

and to bring the child

up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

If the baptism is of an adult, however, the baptismal candidate renounces

the devil, and all his works, and all his ways,

affirms the Apostles’ Creed, and promises to

abide in

the Christian Faith and to

remain faithful to

the teachings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and

to be diligent in the use of the Means of Grace.

If one is being confirmed, one does the same things then is permitted to receive the Holy Communion.

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III.  THE SERVICE BOOK AND HYMNAL (1958)

Traditionally U.S. Lutheran baptismal rites have included the renunciation of the devil, all his works, and all his ways in one question or in three.  The Service Book and Hymnal (1958) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/holy-art-thou-the-service-book-and-hymnal-1958/) retains that language in the baptism of infants but merges the baptism of adults with Confirmation, something to which Martin Luther might have objected.  The 1958 book also makes that question optional in both the Order for the Baptism of Infants and the Order for Confirmation, for the rubric for each instance indicates that the Minister

may then

say:

Do you renounce the devil, and all his works, and all his ways?

In the ritual for infant baptism this renunciation follows instructions to teach the child

the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord’s Prayer,

to place

the Holy Scriptures

in the child’s hands as he or she matures, to bring the child

to the services of God’s House,

and to provide for the child’s

instruction in the Christian Faith.

After the renunciation the Minister asks the sponsors to affirm the Apostles’ Creed.

But one being baptized/confirmed as an adult might

renounce the devil, and all his works, and all his ways

if the Minister asks the question.  Such a candidate does, however, affirm the Apostles’ Creed, promise to

abide in this Faith and in the covenant

of his or her baptism, and,

as a member of the Church to be diligent in the use of the Means of Grace and in prayer.

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IV.  THE LUTHERAN BOOK OF WORSHIP (1978)

Liturgical renewal affected baptismal rites, as in the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/lord-of-heaven-and-earth-the-lutheran-book-of-worship-1978/).  The language, although different, remains close to tradition.

Sponsors of young children promise to bring them

faithully…to the services of God’s house, and to teach them the Lord’s Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments,

and,

as they grow in years,

to

place in their hands the Holy Scriptures and provide for their instruction in the Christian faith….

That material is familiar, is it not?

The baptismal vows entail renouncing

all the forces of evil, the devil, and all his empty promises

and affirming the Apostles’ Creed.  The traditional renunciation is gone, replaced by a stronger statement.

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V.  LUTHERAN WORSHIP (1982)

Lutheran Worship (1982) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/gathered-in-the-name-and-remembrance-of-jesus-lutheran-worship-1982/) takes a more traditional approach to the baptismal vows than does the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978).  Sponsors of young children make the traditional promises retained in the previously discussed volume.  Then the candidate or sponsor renounces

the devil and all his works and all his ways

before affirming the Apostle’s Creed.

Lutheran Worship, unlike the Lutheran Book of Worship, on which it is based, contains a separate rite of Confirmation.  The confirmand renounces

the devil and all his works and all his ways,

affirms the Apostles’ Creed, promises to

continue steadfast in this confession and Church and to suffer all, rather than fall away from it,

affirms that

all the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures

are

the inspired Word of God

and confesses

the doctrine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, drawn from them,

as learned from

the Small Catechism, to be faithful and true.

The confirmand also vows

faithfully to conform

all his or her

life to the divine Word, to be faithful in the use of God’s Word and Sacraments, which are his means of grace, and in faith, word, and action to remain true to God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, even to death.

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VI.  EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN WORSHIP (2006)

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/27/you-are-indeed-holy-o-god-the-fountain-of-all-holiness-with-one-voice-1995-and-evangelical-lutheran-worship-2006/), successor to the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), remains grounded in liturgical tradition while modifying the baptismal vows to make them stronger.

Sponsors of children presented for baptism receive the following instruction:

As you bring your children to receive the gift of baptism, you are entrusted with responsibilities:

to live with them among God’s faithful people,

bring them to the word of God and the holy supper,

teach them the Lord’s  Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments,

place in their hands the holy scriptures,

and nurture them in faith and prayer,

so that your children may learn to trust God,

proclaim Christ through word and deed,

care for others and the world God made,

and work for justice and peace.

I notice the added emphasis on social justice and environmental justice approvingly.

The sponsors also promise

to nurture these persons in the Christian faith as you are empowered by God’s Spirit, and to help them live in the covenant of baptism and in communion with the church.

The baptismal vows entail renouncing

the devil and all the forces that defy God

then renouncing

the powers of this world that rebel against God

then renouncing

the ways of sin that draw you from God

before affirming the Apostles’ Creed.

There is a rite for the Affirmation of Baptism, which includes the three renunciations and the affirmation of the Apostles’ Creed.

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VII.  THE LUTHERAN SERVICE BOOK (2006)

The Lutheran Service Book (2006) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/blessed-are-you-o-lord-our-god-king-of-all-creation-hymnal-supplement-98-1998-and-the-lutheran-service-book-2006/), successor to Lutheran Worship (1982), is more traditional than Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006).

The sponsors receive instructions to pray for the children,

support them in their ongoing instruction and nurture in the Christian faith, and encourage them toward the faithful reception of the Lord’s Supper,

as well as

at all times to be examples to them of the holy life of faith in Christ and love for the neighbor.

The baptismal vows entail renouncing

the devil

then renouncing

all his works

then renouncing

all his ways

before affirming the Apostles’ Creed.

There is also a Confirmation rite, which includes the three renunciations and the affirmation of the Apostles’ Creed.  Confirmands also

hold all the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures to be the inspired Word of God,

confess the doctrine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, drawn from the Scriptures, as you have learned to know it from the Small Catechism, to be faithful and true…intend to hear the Word of God and receive the Lord’s Supper faithfully,

… and

intend to live according to the Word of God, and in faith, word, and deed to remain true to God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, even to death.

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VIII.  OTHER SERVICE BOOKS

To be concise, my survey of other U.S. Lutheran service books past and present reveals that, without exception, conservative synods retain the traditional baptismal vows and renunciations, with varying degrees of formality and some linguistic variations and degrees of formality, including modernizing personal pronouns if the book postdates the 1950s.

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IX.  CONCLUSION

The more often mainline Lutherans revise their baptismal rites the more those renunciations resemble questions from The Book of Common Prayer (1979), in which one renounces

Satan and all the spiritual forces of wickedness that rebel against God

then

the evil powers of this world which corrupt and destroy the creatures of God

then

all sinful desires that draw you from the love of God.

And the environmental stewardship and social justice components of the rites from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006) echo themes from the Baptismal Covenant from the 1979 Prayer Book, including the promise to

strive for justice and peace among all people, and respect the dignity of every human being.

These are positive developments, ones rooted in tradition and Christian ethics.

As to the rites themselves from 1917 to 2006, I recognize much consistency–usually a good thing in this case–yet with shining examples of innovation which makes the language more potent.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 27, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN HENRY BATEMAN, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM REED HUNTINGTON, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 1994.

Book of Common Prayer, The.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1979.  Reprint, 2007.

Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal.  Milwaukee, WI:  Northwestern Publishing House, 1993.

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church.  Philadelphia, PA:  The Board of Publication of The United Lutheran Church in America, 1917, 1918.

Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary.  St. Louis, MO:  MorningStar Music Publishers, Inc., 1996.

Evangelical Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 2006.

Hymnal and Order of Service, The.  Lectionary Edition.  Rock Island, IL:  Augustana Book Concern, 1925.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Ministers Desk Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

__________.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Pew Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship for Provisional Use.  Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Education, Lutheran Church in America, 1970.

Jones, Cheslyn, et al, eds.  The Study of Liturgy.  Revised Edition.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1992.

Lutheran Service Book.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 2006.

Lutheran Worship.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1982.

Pfatteicher, Philip H.  Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1990.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Wentz, Abdel Ross.  The Lutheran Church in American History.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  The United Lutheran Publication House, 1933.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

Schalk, Carl.  ”A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals (before LSB).”  Based on a 1997 document; updated to 2006.  Copyrighted by The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Stuckwisch, D. Richard.  ”The Missouri Synod and the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.”  Lutheran Forum, Volume 37, Number 3 (Fall 2003), pages 43-51.

KRT

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Keep Us In the Saving Faith: Liturgies of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 1993-2008   8 comments

Christian Worship--A Lutheran Hymnal (1993)

Above:  My Copies of The Lutheran Hymnal (1941) and Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal (1993), July 22, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XV

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Now, eternal God and Father, keep us in the saving faith and so enable us to overcome all things through our Lord Jesus Christ.

Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal (1993), page 32

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I.  TECHNICAL NOTE

This post, being Part XV of an ongoing series, flows from previous entries, links to which I have provided here:  https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/guide-to-posts-about-lutheran-worship/.  One post in particular (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/only-one-reading-required-the-wisconsin-evangelical-lutheran-synod-and-its-predecessors-1850-1940/) will prove especially germane.

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II.  INTRODUCTION

The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) used The Lutheran Hymnal (1941) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/o-come-let-us-sing-unto-the-lord-the-lutheran-hymnal-1941/), abbreviated hereafter as TLH (1941), for decades before deciding to develop a new hymnal-service book in 1983.  By that time The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) had already developed Lutheran Worship (1982) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/gathered-in-the-name-and-remembrance-of-jesus-lutheran-worship-1982/).  Thus Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal (1993) rolled off the presses in 1993.

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III.  CONTENTS OF THE HYMNAL (1993) AND THE SUPPLEMENT (2008)

As the Introduction to the hymnal-service book explains, the modus operandi of the framers was to preserve the perceived best elements of TLH (1941) and to expand upon them.  Thus all of the TLH (1941) services are present in modernized language, the Church is still “Christian” in the Creeds, and most TLH (1941) hymns remain (sometimes with updated language).  Also, the 1941 Church Calendar is present, updated to reflect Sundays after Pentecost (not Trinity), delete the -gesimas, and add some feast days, such as the one for St. Thomas the Apostle (December 21).  There is a modified version of the 1941 one-year lectionary (with three readings this time), which sits beside the three-year lectionary of the Inter-Lutheran Commission of Worship (ILCW).

An examination of the texts which do not mirror TLH (1941) indicates the blending of the old and the new.  For example, two new rituals–the Service for Word and Sacrament and the Service of the Word–follow familiar forms, include familiar and adapted texts, and incorporate new texts while providing a variety of rites.  If one chooses not to use the variation on the Common Service rituals, there are alternatives.  Also, the 1993 hymnal, unlike TLH (1941), includes Baptism, Marriage, and Funeral rituals plus forms for devotions.

Fifteen years later, WELS published Christian Worship:  Supplement (2008), having released Christian Worship:  Occasional Services years before.  (Not everything fits into one hymnal-service book.)  Supplement provides a new musical setting of the Divine (Common) Service from the 1993 hymnal, this time not in Anglican Chant.  This is a reprint from Christian Worship:  New Musical Settings (2002).  And Supplement contains Divine Service II, in the tradition of Martin Luther’s German Mass and complete with the Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving.  The first U.S. Lutheran version of the Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving had appeared in the Service Book and Hymnal (1958) and the LCMS had adopted the practice with Worship Supplement (1969).  Yet most ultra-conservative U.S. Lutherans have held back–WELS until 2008.  There are ultra-conservatives then there are ultra-conservatives.

Other features in Supplement include hymns not in the 1993 hymnal, new Gathering Rites, and a supplementary three-year lectionary.

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IV.  CONCLUSION

WELS published its first English-language hymnal-service book in 1911.  That pathetic volume had only four pages of liturgy.  The next such volume, the Book of Hymns (1917) included only sixteen pages–very simple rites, to be sure.  Their introduction to proper English-language liturgy came via The Lutheran Hymnal (1941), a joint effort of the Synodical Conference.  The more recent liturgical efforts of WELS reflect the influence of that service book, which remains superior to its WELS successors.  Something about worship resources from WELS come across as sub-par to me.  The Synod has never been the epicenter of High Churchmanship, and its worship resources are inferior to most contemporary U.S. Lutheran counterparts–except (notably) for those of the Association of Free Lutheran Congregations (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/or-free-prayer-ambassador-hymnal-for-lutheran-worship-1994/).  In contrast, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), the LCMS, and The Evangelical Lutheran Synod (ELS) have far-superior hymnals-worship books which leave the WELS Christian Worship series in the sawdust.

Next:  U.S. Lutheran Liturgy, Part XVI–O Lord, Our Maker, Redeemer, and Comforter:  The Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary (1996).  This will be my review of the hymnal-service book of The Evangelical Lutheran Synod.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 26, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANNE AND JOACHIM, PARENTS OF SAINT MARY OF NAZARETH

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 1994.

Book of Hymns.  Milwaukee, WI:  Northwestern Publishing House, 1917.  Reprint, 1932.

Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal.  Milwaukee, WI:  Northwestern Publishing House, 1993.

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary.  St. Louis, MO:  MorningStar Music Publishers, Inc., 1996.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The.  The Lutheran Hymnal.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1941.

Evangelical Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 2006.

Lutheran Service Book.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 2006.

Lutheran Worship.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1982.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Washington, DC:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Worship Supplement.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1969.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

“Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.”  Hymnal Sales, Minneapolis, MN.  This is a document designed to convince congregations to purchase the 1994 hymnal.

Christian Worship:  Supplement Introductory Resources.  Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 2008.

Schalk, Carl.  ”A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals (before LSB).”  Based on a 1997 document; updated to 2006.  Copyrighted by The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Stuckwisch, D. Richard.  ”The Missouri Synod and the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.”  Lutheran Forum, Volume 37, Number 3 (Fall 2003), pages 43-51.

Zabell, Jon F.  ”The Formation of Function of WELS Hymnals:  Further Conversation.”  For the National Conference of Worship, Music, and the Arts, July 2008.

KRT

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Or, Free Prayer: Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship (1994)   4 comments

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship (1994)

Above:  My Copies of The Concordia Hymnal (1932) and the Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship (1994), July 22, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XIV

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or, Free Prayer

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship (1994), page 2

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I.  TECHNICAL NOTE

This post, being Part XIV of an ongoing series, flows from previous entries, links to which I have provided here:  https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/guide-to-posts-about-lutheran-worship/.

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II.  INTRODUCTION

Taylor’s Law of Denominational Mergers, as I call it, states that:

Whenever two or more denominations merge, two or more denominations are likely to form.

This law explains the creation of the Association of Free Lutheran Congregations (AFLC) (1962) from The Lutheran Free Church (LFC) (1897-1963), which merged into The American Lutheran Church (1960-1987).  I wrote about the AFLC in Part VII (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/20/that-by-thy-grace-we-may-come-to-everlasting-life-norwegian-american-lutherans-1853-1963/), to which I refer you, O reader.

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III.  LITURGY 

The Concordia Hymnal (1932) was the closest thing the LFC had to an official hymn book.  It was the most widely used such book in the denomination and the volume which the Church encouraged congregations to use.  The Concordia Hymnal was so popular that most LFC congregations continued to use it after the Service Book and Hymnal (1958) debuted, at least for the the services, especially The Order of Morning Service II.

Promotional material for Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship which I found online tout it as flexible:

The worship settings represent a broader liturgical stance than other Lutheran hymnals….

Scant is more accurate.  The AFLC, with its Low Church roots, persists in anti-ritualistic error, a tendency to mistake simplicity of worship for purity thereof and to focus on personal piety at the expense of corporate worship.

Ambassador Hymnal offers the following, some of which will prompt comments from me:

  • Morning Worship;
  • Three forms of Holy Communion;
  • Personal Preparation for Holy Communion;
  • Holy Baptism;
  • Confirmation;
  • Church School Service;
  • Layman’s Service;
  • Youth Service;
  • Collects, Introits, Prefaces, Calls to Worship, Confession of Sin, Declarations of Grace, Confessions of Faith, Benedictions, and Doxologies;
  • Doctrinal content, such as Luther’s Small Catechism;
  • Lectionaries, and
  • Scripture Selections and Responsive Readings.

The language in these services ranges from contemporary to traditional and from stately to clunky.

Morning Worship, which can include “The Lord’s Supper,” is a sparse ritual which draws from established Lutheran rites.

Then there are the Eucharistic rites:

  1. Holy Communion I, which a pastor can tack onto Morning Worship, draws from established Lutheran rituals also.  But the full Bugenhagen service and the complete Common Service Communion rite are much more elaborate.
  2. Holy Communion II is based on The Order of Morning Service II from The Concordia Hymnal, with some other influences, including elements of Augustana Synod rituals, added.  In fact, the 1994 ritual is barely recognizable as an adaptation of the 1932 one.  But the official promotional material tells me that the familiar 1932 ritual is the basis for this rite.
  3. The Holy Communion rite based on the Common Service is greatly abbreviated.  But at least it allows for three readings.

Some traditions (other than opposition to social dancing) remain firm in the AFLC:

  1. The Church is still “Christian,” not “catholic,” in the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds.
  2. The Nicene Creed is still in the first-person singular.
  3. There are two lectionaries–the three-year Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship (ILCW) three-year plan, with three readings per Sunday and major feast day, and an adapted traditional one-year lectionary, also with three readings.  But the AFLC, unlike The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, has not adjusted to the changes the Roman Catholic Church made in the Calendar in 1969.  Thus there are -gesimas and Sundays after Trinity, not Pentecost.

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IV.  CONCLUSION

Back in the bad old Lutheran liturgical days of the early 1800s, it was common for liturgy to be an afterthought in hymnals.  Ambassador Hymnal, with 634 hymns and only 163 pages of liturgy, harkens back to that time.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 26, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANNE AND JOACHIM, PARENTS OF SAINT MARY OF NAZARETH

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 1994.

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church.  Philadelphia, PA:  The Board of Publication of The United Lutheran Church in America, 1917, 1918.

Concordia:  A Collection of Hymns and Spiritual Songs.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1917.

Concordia Hymnal, The:  A Hymnal for Church, School and Home.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1932.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The.  The Lutheran Hymnal.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1941.

Fevold, Eugene L.  The Lutheran Free Church:  A Fellowship of American Lutheran Congregations, 1897-1963.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1969.

Hymnal and Order of Service, The.  Lectionary Edition.  Rock Island, IL:  Augustana Book Concern, 1925.

Hymnal for Church and Home.  3d. Ed.  Blair, NE:  Danish Lutheran Publishing House, 1938.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Washington, DC:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Wentz, Abdel Ross.  The Lutheran Church in American History.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  The United Lutheran Publication House, 1933.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

“Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.”  Hymnal Sales, Minneapolis, MN.  This is a document designed to convince congregations to purchase the 1994 hymnal.

Association Free Lutheran Bible School, Plymouth, MN.  AFLBS Student Life Guidelines 2009-2010.

__________.  AFLBS Student Life Handbook 2012-2013.

Erickson, Anne.  “God Wants to Help Parents Help Their Kids.”  Pages 8-9 in The Lutheran Ambassador (April 10, 2001).

Walker, Larry J., Ed.  “Standing Fast in Freedom.”  2d.  Ed.  Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 2000.

KRT

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Gathered in the Name and Remembrance of Jesus: Lutheran Worship (1982)   6 comments

Lutheran Service Book (2006)

Above:  My Copies of The Lutheran Hymnal (1941), Worship Supplement (1969), Lutheran Worship (1982), Hymnal Supplement 98 (1998), and the Lutheran Service Book (2006), July 22, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XIII

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Gathered in the name and the remembrance of Jesus, we beg you, O Lord, to forgive, renew, and strengthen us with your Word and Spirit.  Grant us faithfully to eat his body and drink his blood as he bids us to do in his own testament.  Hear us as we pray in his name and as he taught us….

Lutheran Worship (1982), page 149

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I.  TECHNICAL NOTE

This post, being Part XIII of an ongoing series, flows from previous entries, links to which I have provided here:  https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/guide-to-posts-about-lutheran-worship/.

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II.  INTRODUCTION

Lutheran Worship (1982), abbreviated hereafter as LW, is the “Blue Book” which has received much criticism and praise.  LW, a revised edition of the Lutheran Book of Worship (LBW) (1978) (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/lord-of-heaven-and-earth-the-lutheran-book-of-worship-1978/), is, for some, the bastard stepchild of recent Lutheran liturgy.  It is a flawed volume, to be sure.  The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) revisers who edited the hymns modernized some of the texts awkwardly.  Perhaps the most infamous example of this, based on Internet mentions alone, is the butchering of Ray Palmer’s “My Faith Looks Up to Thee,” which LW renders as “My Faith Looks Trustingly.”  The LBW had kept it as “My Faith Looks Up to Thee,” a practice to which the Lutheran Service Book (LSB) (2006) returns, mercifully.

Before I proceed I need to make a technical disclaimer.  My copy of LW is of the Pew Edition, not the Altar Book.  Pew editions are incomplete relative to alter books.  I regret any crucial omissions or accidental errors which might appear in this post for that reason.  But I have read secondary literature regarding LW services, so hopefully my understanding is basically correct.

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III.  LITURGIES AND ASSOCIATED AIDS

A.  A Great Retrenchment

I conclude that between 1969 and 1982 a great retrenchment occurred within the LCMS.  Supporting evidence follows:

  1. The LCMS published its Worship Supplement in 1969 and authorized use of Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion (1970), volumes which, in the Nicene and Apostles’ Creeds, call the Church “catholic” not the usual Lutheran “Christian.”  Furthermore, they do this without so much as an asterisk or apostrophe.
  2. The Nicene Creed in the 1969 and 1970 rites is in the first-person plural, consistent with the Greek text.
  3. The Creed comes after the Sermon in 1969 and 1970 rituals.  The Common Service pattern is to place the Creed before the sermon.
  4. All of these changes carried over into the LBW (1978).
  5. Yet LW reverses them.  And it places an asterisk and a footnote on both the Nicene and Apostles’ Creeds, explaining that the ancient texts say “catholic,” not “Christian.”

I am writing based on primary sources–official documents which the LCMS authorized.  The LCMS changed its collective mind during the span of a few years.

B.  Similar to and Different from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978)

Many of the services in LW are sufficiently close to the LBW as to be recognizable from them quite easily, despite changes.  The variants on the Common Service in LW are closer to the rituals in The Lutheran Hymnal (1941) than to those in the LBW versions of Communion, Matins, and Vespers.  Yet, for many, the LW rites were too different from the 1941 versions.  Relative to the LBW, however, LW is more traditionally Lutheran.  The Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving in the Divine Service is quite brief, for example–close to being absent, yet present.

C.  Renunciations in the Baptismal Rites

We see another difference by comparing the baptismal rites in the LBW and in LW.  The LBW ritual includes the question:

Do you renounce all the forces of evil, the devil, and all his empty promises?

–Pew Edition, page 123

But the corresponding question in LW reads:

Do you renounce the devil and all his works and all his ways?

–Pew Edition, page 201

The LCMS form is identical to that found in the Service Book and Hymnal (1958), Music Edition, page 245.  Yet the LBW question covers more, if vaguer, territory.  All of it seems, to my Episcopalian mind, a distinction without a difference.  But some Lutherans found the difference and criticized the LBW for it.

D.  Calendars

Lutheran Calendars have become fuller during the last one hundred years, for names of more Biblical figures and people from Christian history have appeared there.  Thus I am not surprised to see that, in LW, May 7 is the Feast of C. F. W. Walther or that , in the LBW (which has the more complete Calendar), September 4 is the Feast of Albert Schweitzer, for example.  I note also that, finally in LW and the LBW, January 18 is the Feast of the Confession of St. Peter.  The Calendars of both books reflect the changes the Roman Catholic Church made in 1969, so the -gesimas are gone and there are Sundays after Pentecost, not Trinity.

E.  Lectionaries

Related to the Calendar are lectionaries.  The LBW contains the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship (ILCW) three-year lectionary for Sundays and major feasts, as does LW.  Yet LW adds the option of following a variant of the traditional one-year lectionary, with three readings per day.  Each book also offers a daily lectionary to accompany the the daily prayer rituals.  The LBW contains the two-year Daily Office from The Book of Common Prayer (1979), but LW offers a one-year lectionary, the framers of which seemed enamored with reading chapters as coherent units.  Intelligent reading of the Bible does not always entail reading a chapter as a unit, for sometimes more or less than that makes more sense, given the content.

F.  Psalters

The Psalter in the LBW (complete in the Ministers Edition, partial in the Pew Edition) comes from The Book of Common Prayer (1979).  The LCMS Commission on Worship, however, used the New International Version (NIV), far from the most graceful rendering.  The Psalter in the Pew Edition of LW is also partial, consistent with an old Lutheran practice.

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IV.  CONCLUSION

The Reverend D. Richard Stuckwisch, in a nine-page article about the LCMS and the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship, describes the differences between LW and the LBW as

too many to describe here….

Lutheran Forum, Fall 2003, page 50

So I know that they are too numerous to describe in this blog post.  No, I leave that task to others, who have certainly done it already in the thirty-one years which have passed since 1982.

LW never won the acclaim its framers had hoped for it.  Many LCMS congregations retained The Lutheran Hymnal (1941) while others used the LBW instead.  The Lutheran Service Book (2006), which integrates elements of the  1941 and 1982 hymnals-service books, is an attempt at a unifying hymnal-service book for the LCMS.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 26, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANNE AND JOACHIM, PARENTS OF SAINT MARY OF NAZARETH

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The.  The Lutheran Hymnal.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1941.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Ministers Desk Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

__________.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Pew Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship for Provisional Use.  Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Education, Lutheran Church in America, 1970.

Lutheran Service Book.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 2006.

Lutheran Worship.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1982.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Washington, DC:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.

Pfatteicher, Philip H.  Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1990.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Worship Supplement.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1969.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

Schalk, Carl.  ”A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals (before LSB).”  Based on a 1997 document; updated to 2006.  Copyrighted by The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Stuckwisch, D. Richard.  “The Missouri Synod and the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.”  Lutheran Forum, Volume 37, Number 3 (Fall 2003), pages 43-51.

KRT

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Lord of Heaven and Earth: The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978)   13 comments

Lutheran Book of Worship (1978)

Above:  My Copies of the Lutheran Book of Worship Pew and Ministers Desk Editions (1978), the related Manual on the Liturgy (1979), the Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship (1990) and The Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship (1981), July 22, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XII

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Blessed are you,

Lord of heaven and earth.

In mercy for our fallen world

you gave your only Son,

that all those who believe in him

should not perish

but have eternal life.

We give thanks to you

for the salvation

you have prepared

for us through Jesus Christ.

Send now your Holy Spirit

into our hearts,

that we may receive our Lord

with a living faith

as he comes to us

in his holy supper.

Lutheran Book of Worship, Pew Edition (1978), page 70

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I.  TECHNICAL NOTE

This post, being Part XII of an ongoing series, flows from previous entries, links to which I have provided here:  https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/guide-to-posts-about-lutheran-worship/.

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II.  INTRODUCTION

Two merged denominations–The American Lutheran Church (TALC) (1960) and the Lutheran Church in America (LCA) (1962)–had formed via unions of the eight synods which had forged the Service Book and Hymnal (1958).  Meanwhile, The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) was revising The Lutheran Hymnal (1941) and the Synodical Conference (1872-1966/1967) was coming apart due to tensions within the federation.  Was the LCMS engaging in “improper relations” with certain Christian denominations?  (That sounds like a sexual offense warranting death by stoning in the Law of Moses!)

To be concise, the 1960s and the 1970s occurred and brought with them not only in regrettable hair styles and unforgivable clothing fashions, but also liturgical changes.  The best of these liturgical changes we call “liturgical renewal,” which semi-traditional worship partisans such as the author applaud for returning to older, lost practices while modernizing language.  On the other hand, some liturgical volumes from the time are far from graceful.  They are so 1970, as in the Presbyterian Worshipbook (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/03/the-worshipbook-services-and-hymns-1972-services/).

In LCMS politics, related to relations with other Christian (especially Lutheran) denominations, the 1969-1976 civil war ended with the conservatives in control at headquarters.  Many relatively liberal-minded people left to form the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (1976-1987), which went on to join TALC and the LCA to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).

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III.  THE INTER-LUTHERAN COMMISSION ON WORSHIP (ILCW) AND WORSHIP SUPPLEMENT (1969)

A.  The Beginning

Liturgical revision began in the LCMS in the 1950s.  A sufficient amount of time had passed since 1941, given the expected lifespan of official hymnal-service books.  The LCMS, at its 1965 convention, resolved to join with other Lutheran denominations to share liturgically and musically with them as part of an effort to develop a common liturgy and hymnody.  Thus the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship (ILCW) came into being.  Representatives of three U.S. bodies–the LCMS, the LCA, and TALC–and two related bodies–the Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches  (SELC) (which merged into the LCMS in 1971) and The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Canada (a spin-off of TALC) got down to work in 1966.

Early in the ILCW’s existence LCMS and SELC representatives were not as active as were those of other bodies, for the LCMS and the SELC were completing their Worship Supplement (1969), what became of the hymnal revision project started in the 1950s:

More than a generation has passed since The Lutheran Hymnal first appeared in 1941.  The intervening years have brought many changes in Christian living that have led to new worship needs.  New concerns for social structures, colleges, armed forces, missions, the inner city, and racially or culturally conscious groups have raised a need for updating liturgical and hymnodic materials both as to language and form.

When this need first began to be felt, a thorough revision of The Lutheran Hymnal was planned and begun.  The project was abandoned several years ago in favor of a program designed to lead to an eventual all-Lutheran hymnal in English.  The present Worship Supplement was meanwhile chosen to supply the worship needs of the Church until the proposed long-range project could produce a more permanent hymnal….

–From the Foreward to Worship Supplement (1969), page 9

Ironically, the Worship Supplement foreshadowed the Lutheran Book of Worship (LBW) (1978) more than its LCMS counterpart, Lutheran Worship (LW) (1982).

B.  Worship Supplement (1969):  An Evaluation

Worship Supplement includes 93 hymns and 101 pages of liturgy.  The modernized language is mostly graceful, although the Communion service on pages 59-62 lacks poetic sensibilities.  This is how that ritual begins:

Minister:  We are here

People:  in the name of Jesus Christ.

All:  We are here because we are men–but we deny our humanity.  We are stubborn fools and liars to ourselves. We do not love God nor other people as we ought.  We war against life.  We hurt each other.  We are sorry for it and know we are sick from it.  We seek new life.

Minister:  Giver of life, heal us and free us to be men.

All:  Holy Spirit, speak to us.  Help us to listen, for we are very deaf.  Come, fill this moment.

Yet there is much positive about the book.  For example:

  • It moves the Creed from before the sermon to afterward, improving the flow of the service.
  • It establishes three readings from the Bible as the norm in Sunday worship.
  • It provides three options for the Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving in the Eucharistic rites.  Among these is a variant of the prayer from the Service Book and Hymnal (1958).
  • The Nicene Creed is in the first-person plural, thereby following the Greek text.
  • The Church is “catholic” (without so much as an asterisk or a footnote) in the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds.

C.  Contemporary Worship Booklets and Prayer Book Influences

From 1969 to 1976 the ILCW prepared and published a series of booklets containing provisional liturgies.  This was the Contemporary Worship series.

Lutheran liturgical scholar Philip H. Pfatteicher, on page 10 of his Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship (1990), quotes a brash, clunky prayer from Contemporary Worship 6:  The Church Year:  Calendar and Lectionary (1973):

O God, give us bread to nourish our bodies, and in Christ give us the bread of eternal life, that in him we may grow and thrive and serve; through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.

That prayer, which became dated quickly, did not survive long enough to become part of the LBW, fortunately.

One purpose of softcover authorized liturgical resources is to experiment during the transitional period en route to the next hardcover service book.  The ILCW and the LCMS did this contemporaneous with The Episcopal Church as it went through Prayer Book revision.  In both cases experimentation led to much that was meritorious and retained in some form in the next service book and to much that revisers wisely left abandoned by the proverbial road.  And Lutheran and Episcopalian revisers influenced each others’ work; the LBW and The Book of Common Prayer (1979) have much shared content.

The LCMS rejected the LBW and prepared its own revision, Lutheran Worship (1982), based on the ILCW texts.

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IV.  THE LUTHERAN BOOK OF WORSHIP (1978):  SERVICES AND OTHER LITURGICAL MATERIALS

The LBW exists in three editions:

  1. the Pew Edition, or the “Green Book,” which includes the hymnal;
  2. the Accompaniment Edition; and
  3. the Ministers Edition, with all the rubrics and liturgical words.

I write this assessment based on (1) and (3).

The differences between Pew and Ministers Editions include the following:

  1. The Psalter is partial in the Pew Edition and full in the Ministers Edition.
  2. The Ministers Edition contains the Ash Wednesday and Holy Week Services; the Pew Edition does not.
  3. The Pew Edition contains two Canons/Prayers of Thanksgiving; the Ministers Edition has four, including a variation on the 1958 text.

The summary of the four forms of the Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving follows:

  1. Eucharistic Prayer I (in the Pew and Ministers Editions) is a revision of the text from Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion (1970).
  2. Eucharistic Prayer II (in the Pew and Ministers Editions) elaborates on Eucharistic Prayer I.  The roots of this form (II) go back to 1975.
  3. Eucharistic Prayer III (in the Ministers Edition), which does not require congregational participation, is a slight revision of the prayer from the Service Book and Hymnal (1958).
  4. Eucharistic Prayer IV (in the Ministers Edition) is based on a third century text by Hippolytus.

The LBW resembles the 1979 Prayer Book with chanting added throughout.  The LBW also draws on the best of liturgical renewal from the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Calendar reforms of the Roman Catholic Church.  As in the LCMS Worship Supplement (1969), the Creed follows the sermon, the Nicene Creed is in the first-person plural, and the Church is “catholic” without an asterisk or a footnote.

There is also Lutheran Book of Worship:  Occasional Services (1982), which I do not not own.  Based on what I have read, it would tell me how to install church officers, dedicate a church, lay a cornerstone, et cetera.

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V.  CONCLUSION

The Common Service antecedents of the LBW are obvious.  Yet the LBW corrects some of the great flaws of that 1888 body of liturgy, such as the placement of the Creed relative to the sermon.  Thus the LBW is superior to the unaltered Common Service.

I plan to write about more “nuts and bolts” while comparing and contracting the LBW with the LCMS variant, Lutheran Worship (1982), in the next post.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 25, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES BAR-ZEBEDEE, APOSTLE AND MARTYR

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church.  Philadelphia, PA:  The Board of Publication of The United Lutheran Church in America, 1917, 1918.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The.  The Lutheran Hymnal.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1941.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Ministers Desk Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

__________.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Pew Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship for Provisional Use.  Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Education, Lutheran Church in America, 1970.

Lutheran Worship.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1982.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Washington, DC:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.

Pfatteicher, Phiip H.  Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1990.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Worship Supplement.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1969.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

Schalk, Carl.  ”A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals (before LSB).”  Based on a 1997 document; updated to 2006.  Copyrighted by The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Stuckwisch, D. Richard.  “The Missouri Synod and the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.”  Lutheran Forum, Volume 37, Number 3 (Fall 2003), pages 43-51.

KRT

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Holy Art Thou: The Service Book and Hymnal (1958)   14 comments

Service Book and Hymnal (1958)

Above:  My Copies of the Service Book and Hymnal (1958) and The Lutheran Liturgy (1959), July 22, 2013

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U.S. LUTHERAN LITURGY, PART XI

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Holy art thou, almighty and Merciful God, Holy art thou, and great is the majesty of thy glory.

Thou didst so love the world as to give thine only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him might not perish, but have everlasting life; Who, having come into the world to fulfill for us thy holy will and to accomplish all things for our salvation, IN THE NIGHT IN WHICH HE WAS BETRAYED, TOOK BREAD; AND WHEN HE HAD GIVEN THANKS, HE BRAKE IT AND GAVE IT TO HIS DISCIPLES, SAYING TAKE, EAT; THIS IS MY BODY, WHICH IS GIVEN FOR YOU; THIS DO IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME.

AFTER THE SAME MANNER ALSO, HE TOOK THE CUP, WHEN HE HAD SUPPED, AND, WHEN HE HAD GIVEN THANKS, HE GAVE IT TO THEM, SAYING, DRINK YE ALL OF IT; THIS CUP IS THE NEW TESTAMENT IN MY BLOOD, WHICH IS SHED FOR YOU, AND FOR MANY, FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS; THIS DO, AS OFT AS YE DRINK IT, IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME.

Remembering, therefore, his salutary precept, his life-giving Passion and Death, his glorious Resurrection and Ascension and the promise of his coming again, we give thanks to thee, O Lord God Almighty, not as we ought, but as we are able; and we beseech thee mercifully to accept our praise and thanksgiving, and with thy Word and Holy Spirit to bless us, thy servants, and these thine gifts of bread and wine, so that we and all who partake thereof may be filled with heavenly benediction and grace, and, receiving the remission of sins, be sanctified in soul and body, and have our portion with thy saints.

And unto thee, O God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, be all honor and glory in thy holy Church, world without end.  Amen.

–The Prayer of Thanksiving, as printed on page 11 of the Service Book and Hymnal (1958)

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I.  TECHNICAL NOTE

This post, being Part XI of an ongoing series, flows from previous entries, links to which I have provided here:  https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/guide-to-posts-about-lutheran-worship/.

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II.  INTRODUCTION

The Service Book and Hymnal (1958), prepared and authorized by eight denominations, superceded five official hymnals-service books:

  1. The Common Service Book (1917), of The United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA);
  2. The Hymnal and Order of Service (1925), of the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church; used also by the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America since 1930;
  3. The Hymnal for Church and Home (1927, 1938, and 1949), of the two Danish-American synods, The United Evangelical Lutheran Church and the American Evangelical Lutheran Church;
  4. The American Lutheran Hymnal (1930), of The American Lutheran Church (1930-1960); and
  5. The Lutheran Hymnary (1935), of The Evangelical Lutheran Church.

The Service Book and Hymnal also superceded (for the hymnody, at least), The Concordia Hymnal (1932), which The Lutheran Free Church did not authorize but did encourage the use of as its unofficial hymnal.

One of the functions of multi-synodical U.S. Lutheran hymnals and service books has been to foster unity.  Thus new hymnals-service books across denominational lines have preceded mergers.  Examples include:

  • The Lutheran Hymnary (1913), four years before the merger;
  • the Common Service Book (1917), one year before the merger;
  • the Service Book and Hymnal (1958), before mergers in 1960, 1962, and 1963; and
  • the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), nine years before the merger.

The second American Lutheran Church formed by union in 1960; The Lutheran Free Church joined it three years later.  And the Lutheran Church in America came into existence via merger in 1962.  Thus the Service Book and Hymnal (hereafter abbreviated as SBH), became the hymnal of two denominations.

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III.  BACKGROUND

In 1944 the ULCA, pondering the revision of its Common Service Book (1917), resolved to cooperate with as many Lutheran bodies as possible in creating the next hymnal-service book.  The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, having published its Lutheran Hymnal in 1941 (https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/o-come-let-us-sing-unto-the-lord-the-lutheran-hymnal-1941/), declined to participate.  The Joint Commission on the Hymnal, organized in 1945, got down to work with Dr. Luther D. Reed as the chairman.

Aside:  Reed’s account of the preparation process in The Lutheran Liturgy (1959 edition) is thorough without being tedious.  I, seeing no need to paraphrase all of that account here, refer my readers to that fine volume.

Among the issues the representatives of the eight denominations needed to resolve was the plethora of minute differences in their respective variations of the Common Service.  Muhlenberg’s dream of “one church, one book” lived in the minds of many who labored to make the SBH.  When all was accomplished, the Joint Commission had prepared a revolutionary yet traditional resource–a milestone of U.S. Lutheran liturgy.

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IV.  LITURGY

The SBH (1958) contains 314 pages of liturgy and 602 hymns.  This volume, the new book of worship for about two-thirds of U.S. Lutherans, deserves much analysis, a short version of which follows.  The complete, book-length analysis comes courtesy of Luther D. Reed, in the 1959 edition of The Lutheran Liturgy.

The SBH Music Edition contains only part of the ritual.  Other material, such as the occasional services, comes bound separately and in the Text Edition.  I am writing based on the Music Edition, which refers one to the Text Edition for

the whole body of liturgical services.

–page x

The Calendar looks familiar from the Common Service Book (1917), with two additions which attract my attention.  All Saints’ Day (November 1) and the Feast of the Holy Innocents (1958) are new.

The Common Service is present, excluding all other rituals for the Holy Communion.  There are, however, two major differences between this variation on it and the 1888 original version:

  1. Although the Church is still “Christian” in the Creeds, there is a footnote which mentions that the use of “catholic” is “the traditional and generally accepted text.”  Reed’s disapproval of the continued substitution of “Christian” for “catholic” notwithstanding, at least he got an asterisk and a footnote to make an accurate point.  It was a partial victory.
  2. There is now a Lutheran Canon/Prayer of Thanksgiving.  Reed had proposed one in the 1947 edition of The Lutheran Liturgy (pages 336-337) after arguing for the existence of such a Eucharistic Prayer (on pages 331-336).  His 1947 proposed Prayer of Thanksgiving resembles the 1958 Prayer closely, for he and Paul Zeller Strodach collaborated on the final version, which I reproduced at the beginning of this post.  Variation of the 1958 Prayer of Thanksgiving appears in the Missouri Synod’s Worship Supplement (1969) and Lutheran Service Book (2006), the ecumenical Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), and Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).

There are also the usual prayers and services one expects in such a Lutheran book:  Matins, Vespers, Collects, Introits, Baptism, Confession, Burial of the Dead, and Marriage.  The lectionary, which supports the services Eucharistic and otherwise, is a one-year cycle with three readings per day.

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V.  CONCLUSION

As I ponder the SBH in historical context, I recognize it as an intermediate step.  The Nicene Creed is still in the first-person singular and the Church is still “Christian,” for example, but that began to change by the late 1960s and early 1970s.  Most importantly from a liturgical point of view, the restoration of the Canon was a great step forward, one which the Missouri Synod accepted within eleven years, and which other more conservative synods have continued to reject.  Nevertheless, the ultra-conservative Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) added the canon to a service in its Christian Worship:  Supplement (2008).

The SBH was a great advance, one on which that which followed during the next twenty years built and expanded.

Next:  Lord of Heaven and Earth:  The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978).

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 25, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES BAR-ZEBEDEE, APOSTLE AND MARTYR

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 1994.

Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal.  Milwaukee, WI:  Northwestern Publishing House, 1993.

Commission on the Liturgy and Hymnal, The.  Service Book and Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  United Lutheran Publication House, 1958.

Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church.  Philadelphia, PA:  The Board of Publication of The United Lutheran Church in America, 1917, 1918.

Concordia Hymnal, The:  A Hymnal for Church, School and Home.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1932.

Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary.  St. Louis, MO:  MorningStar Music Publishers, Inc., 1996.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The.  The Lutheran Hymnal.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1941.

Evangelical Lutheran Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 2006.

Fevold, Eugene L.  The Lutheran Free Church:  A Fellowship of American Lutheran Congregations, 1897-1963.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1969.

Hymnal and Order of Service, The.  Lectionary Edition.  Rock Island, IL:  Augustana Book Concern, 1925.

Hymnal for Church and Home.  3d. Ed.  Blair, NE:  Danish Lutheran Publishing House, 1938.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Ministers Desk Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

__________.  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Pew Edition.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1978.

Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship for Provisional Use.  Contemporary Worship 2:  Services–The Holy Communion.  Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Education, Lutheran Church in America, 1970.

Lutheran Hymnary Including the Symbols of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, The.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1935.

Lutheran Intersynodical Hymnal Committee.  American Lutheran Hymnal.  Music Edition.  Columbus, OH:  The Lutheran Book Concern, 1930.

Lutheran Service Book.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 2006.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Washington, DC:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.

Pfatteicher, Phiip H.  Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship:  Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1990.

Pfatteicher, Philip H., and Carlos R. Messerli.  Manual on the Liturgy:  Lutheran Book of Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1979.

Reed, Luther D.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America.  Philadelphia, PA:  Muhlenberg Press, 1947.

__________.  The Lutheran Liturgy:  A Study in the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1959.

Stulken, Marilyn Kay.  Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship.  Philadelphia, PA:  Fortress Press, 1981.

Wentz, Abdel Ross.  The Lutheran Church in American History.  2d. Ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  The United Lutheran Publication House, 1933.

With One Voice:  A Lutheran Resource for Worship.  Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Fortress, 1995.

Worship Supplement.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1969.

I also found some PDFs helpful:

Christian Worship:  Supplement Introductory Resources.  Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 2008.

DeGarmeaux, Bruce.  “O Come, Let Us Worship!  A Study of Lutheran Liturgy and Hymnody.”  1995.

Schalk, Carl.  ”A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals (before LSB).”  Based on a 1997 document; updated to 2006.  Copyrighted by The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Zabell, Jon F.  “The Formation of Function of WELS Hymnals:  Further Conversation.”  For the National Conference of Worship, Music, and the Arts, July 2008.

KRT

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