Archive for the ‘Ahikar’ Tag

Tobit’s Final Counsel, with the Deaths of Tobit and Anna   Leave a comment

Above:  How Ahikar Outwitted the King of Egypt, by Henry Justice Ford

Image in the Public Domain

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READING TOBIT

PART XI

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Tobit 14:1b-15

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The novella of Tobit ends as it beings–with historically inaccurate details.  Nevertheless, the theology of the book is what really matters.

Superficially, the end of the Book of Tobit resembles the conclusion of the Book of Job. Within that structure, we read “prophecies” projected backward into an anachronistic time.  We also read reiteration of major themes of the Book of Tobit.  Just in case one forgets about almsgiving, Tobit 14:9 tells one again.  And we, in that context, read an allusion to The Story of Ahikar in 14:10-11a.

I have refrained from summarizing The Story of Ahikar so far.  This is an appropriate post in which to provide that summary.

Ahikar/Ahiqar was a childless royal official in the court of Kings Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.  Ahikar adopted his nephew, Nadin/Nadab, whom he groomed to succeed him in royal service.  The ungrateful Nadin/Nadab falsely accused his uncle of treason.  Ahikar, condemned to die, survived when the executioner, whom he had saved earlier, rescued him.  Ahikar lived in a cave under his (Ahikar’s) house until he accepted a challenge to compete in a contest of wisdom in Egypt.  Ahikar received his honor back.  Nadir/Nadab died in prison.

The Story of Ahikar also contained proverbs, such as

For he who digs a pit for his brother shall fall into it;

and he who sets up traps shall be caught in them.

–7:58b

Tobit and Anna died.  Then Tobias, Sarah, and their children moved in with Raguel and Edna, paying off the Chekovian gun in 10:12.

The Book of Tobit concludes with the wicked perishing and the righteous flourishing.  Given that I have already covered the Book of Retribution in this series, I will not repeat myself much in this post.  I do wish that more of the wicked would repent, that the unrepentant wicked would fall on their faces and meet with unending frustration, and that more of the righteous would flourish.  Alas, that is not the world in which I live.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 5, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE SEVENTH DAY OF ADVENT

THE FEAST OF SAINT CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, FATHER OF CHRISTIAN SCHOLARSHIP

THE FEAST OF SAINT CYRAN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF NELSON MANDELA, PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA, AND RENEWER OF SOCIETY

THE FEAST OF SAINT NICETIUS OF TRIER, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, AND BISHOP; AND SAINT AREDIUS OF LIMOGES, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF PETER MORTIMER, ANGLO-GERMAN MORAVIAN EDUCATOR, MUSICIAN, AND SCHOLAR; AND GOTTFRIED THEODOR ERXLEBEN, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER AND MUSICOLOGIST

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Restoration and Revelation   Leave a comment

Above:  The Healing of Tobit, by Bernardo Strozzi

Image in the Public Domain

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READING TOBIT

PART IX

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Tobit 11:7-12:22

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Tobit had the money he needed.  He also had a new daughter-in-law (Sarah) and the restoration of his eyesight.  He did not expect these blessings.  Tobit, being pious, praised God at the top of his voice.  He, prepared to die, had new, better life.  Even Ahikar (1:21-22; 2:10) joined the celebration (11:18).

Tobias, assuming that his guide was a mere mortal, paid “Azarias” handsomely and attributed the success of the journey to him.  “Azarias,” really the archangel Raphael, gave all the credit to God then revealed his identity and departed.  I guess the dog did, too.  If the canine was also an angel in disguise, why not?

Anyway, the last mention of the dog occurs in 11:4.  The dog may indeed be a remnant from folklore.  The author of the Book of Tobit seems to have had little interest in the canine.

According to Judeo-Christian angelology, there are seven archangels (Tobit 12:15; 1 Enoch 20:1-8).  We have the names of all of them:

  1. Raphael (Tobit 3:16-17/18, depending on versification; Tobit 5-4-8:3); Tobit 9:1-6; Tobit 11:1-12:22; 1 Enoch 20:3);
  2. Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; 1 Enoch 20:7; Luke 1:19, 26);
  3. Michael (Daniel 10:13, 21; Daniel 12:1; 1 Enoch 20:5; Jude 9; Revelation 12:7);
  4. Uriel (2 Esdras 4:1; 2 Esdras 5:20; 2 Esdras 10:28);
  5. Raguel (1 Enoch 20:4);
  6. Saraqael (1 Enoch 20:6); and
  7. Suruel (1 Enoch 20:2).

A Greek fragment of 1 Enoch adds another name:  Remiel, perhaps an alternative name for Uriel, and definitely not an alternative name for any of the other six archangels.

In the story, Raphael insisted that he was merely performing God’s bidding, so God deserved all the praise and glory.  The angel, who could not exist apart from God, was an agent of God.

May we also be agents of God, by grace.  And may we glorify God, not ourselves.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 3, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FIFTH DAY OF ADVENT

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARUTHAS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF MAYPHERKAT AND MISSIONARY TO PERSIA

THE FEAST OF AMILIE JULIANE, COUNTESS OF SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT, GERMAN LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL TAIT, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY TO THE FAR EAST

THE FEAST OF SOPHIE KOULOMZIN, RUSSIAN-AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATOR

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This is post #2400 of BLOGA THEOLOGICA.

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Tobit’s Blindness and Prayer   Leave a comment

Above:  Tobit and Anna with the Kid Goat, by Rembrandt Van Rijn

Image in the Public Domain

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READING TOBIT

PART III

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Tobit 2:9-3:6

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Dystrus 7 was in late winter, in February.  Dystrus, a Hellenistic month, was also a literary anachromism.

In the story, Tobit was ritually impure after having buried a human corpse (Numbers 19:11-14).  So, he slept outside after washing himself ritually.  In the story, sleeping outdoors led to his blindness.  After two years, nephew Ahikar ceased to support Tobit then moved away.  The titular character, reduced to depending financially on his wife, wrongly accused her of having stolen an kid.  She justifiably objected to his attitude.  Anna, angry with her husband (not God, as was Job’s wife in Job 2:8), questioned Tobit’s virtue.  Then Tobit, like Jonah (Jonah 4:3, 8), Moses (Numbers 11:15), Elijah (1 Kings 19:4), and Job (Job 7:15), prayed for death.

The Theory of Retribution, which I have already mentioned and explained in this series, holds that God punishes the wicked and rewards the righteous.  This perspective pervades the Old and New Testaments.  Without rejecting the Theory of Retribution, I propose that life is more complicated than that.  Many of the wicked flourish and many of the righteous suffer in this life.  One way out of this conundrum is to relocate the ultimate reward or punishment to the afterlife.  Yet the Book of Tobit does not indicate belief in postmortem reward or punishment.

However, I remind you, O reader, of the meaning of the title of this book.  “Tobit” means “YHWH is good.”  The Book of Tobit, in its entirety, depicts YHWH as being very good.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 27, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES INTERCISUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYR, 421

THE FEAST OF JAMES MILLS THOBURN, ISABELLA THOBURN, AND CLARA SWAIN, U.S. METHODIST MISSIONARIES TO INDIA

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM COOKE AND BENJAMIN WEBB, ANGLICAN PRIESTS AND TRANSLATORS OF HYMNS

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Tobit’s Courageous Civil Disobedience: Burying the Dead   Leave a comment

Above:  Tobit and Tobias Burying the Dead Israelite, by David Teneirs the Younger

Image in the Public Domain

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READING TOBIT

PART II

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Tobit 1:16-2:8

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The proper burial of relatives and strangers is a high priority in the Hebrew Bible.  Apart from the obvious public health issue, this is a question of respect and kindness.  This theme of proper burial is present in this reading.

Tobit practiced works of kindness and respect to the living and the dead.  His good deeds of burying the dead illegally cost him his livelihood and property.  Then, after a coup d’état, Tobit got his job back.  He continued to act kindly toward the poor and to bury the dead.  The scene in 2:1-8 played out on a day of feasting and thanksgiving.  Amos 8:10, quoted in Tobit 2:6, condemned wealthy Israelites, who exploited the poor.  The suffering of Tobit resumed and became worse because of his compassion for the poor and the murdered.

I will pick up that thread in the next post in this series.

Ahikar was a wise man in the court of King Esarhaddon (reigned 681-669 B.C.E.).  In the Book of Tobit, he was the titular character’s nephew.  Ahikar was also the main character in an ancient text, The Story of Ahikar, with which the anonymous author of the Book of Tobit was certainly familiar.

Tobit 1:16-2:8 reminds us that sometimes suffering results from performing one’s duty before God.  Love of God requires love of other human beings.  Whenever social pressure or a law condemns or prohibits active love for and kindness toward human beings, that social pressure or law is unjust.  Tobit 1:16-2:8 teaches obedience to the law of God in all matters and at all times.  The summary of the divine law is to love God fully and to love one’s neighbors as oneself.  As Rabbi Hillel said, the rest is commentary we ought to study.  

The Law of Moses contains many culturally-specific examples of timeless principles.  We need, therefore, to distinguish between examples and principles.  If we do that, we will be well on the road on which we should travel.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 26, 2020 COMMON ERA

THANKSGIVING DAY (U.S.A.)

THE FEAST OF SOJOURNER TRUTH, U.S. ABOLITIONIST, MYSTIC, AND FEMINIST

THE FEAST OF H. BAXTER LIEBLER, EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND MISSIONARY TO THE NAVAJO NATION

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN BERCHMANS, ROMAN CATHOLIC SEMINARIAN

THE FEAST OF THEODORE P. FERRIS, EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND AUTHOR

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