Archive for the ‘Anglican and Lutheran (General)’ Category

The Communion of Saints, Part II   1 comment

Above:  All Saints

Image in the Public Domain

THE FEAST OF ALL SAINTS (NOVEMBER 1)

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The Episcopal Church has seven Principal Feasts:  Easter Day, Ascension Day, the Day of Pentecost, Trinity Sunday, All Saints’ Day, Christmas Day, and the Epiphany.

The Feast of All Saints, with the date of November 1, seems to have originated in Ireland in the 700s, then spread to England, then to Europe proper.  November 1 became the date of the feast throughout Western Europe in 835.  There had been a competing date (May 13) in Rome starting in 609 or 610.  Anglican tradition retained the date of November 1, starting with The Book of Common Prayer (1549).  Many North American Lutherans first observed All Saints’ Day with the Common Service Book (1917).  The feast was already present in The Lutheran Hymnary (Norwegian-American, 1913).  The Lutheran Hymnal (Missouri Synod, et al, 1941) also included the feast.  O the less formal front, prayers for All Saints’ Day were present in the U.S. Presbyterian Book of Common Worship (Revised) (1932), the U.S. Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home (1945), and their successors.

The Feast of All Saints reminds us that we, as Christians, belong to a large family stretching back to the time of Christ.  If one follows the Lutheran custom of commemorating certain key figures from the Hebrew Bible, the family faith lineage predates the conception of Jesus of Nazareth.

At Christ Episcopal Church, Valdosta, Georgia, where I was a member from 1993 to 1996, I participated in a lectionary discussion group during the Sunday School hour.  Icons decorated the walls of the room in which we met.  The teacher of the class called the saints depicted “the family.”

“The family” surrounds us.  It is so numerous that it is “a great cloud of witnesses,” to quote Hebrews 12:1.  May we who follow Jesus do so consistently, by grace, and eventually join that great cloud.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 13, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF PETER OF CHELCIC, BOHEMIAN HUSSITE REFORMER; AND GREGORY THE PATRIARCH, FOUNDER OF THE MORAVIAN CHURCH

THE FEAST OF GODFREY THRING, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JANE CREWDSON, ENGLISH QUAKER POET AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF NARAYAN SESHADRI OF JALNI, INDIAN PRESBYTERIAN EVANGELIST AND “APOSTLE TO THE MANGS”

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Almighty God, you have knit together your elect in the mystical body of your Son Jesus Christ our Lord:

Give us grace to follow your blessed saints in all virtuous and godly living,

that we may come to those ineffable joys that you have prepared for those who truly love you;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with you and the Holy Spirit

lives and reigns, one God, in glory everlasting.  Amen.

Year A:

Revelation 7:9-17

1 John 3:1-3

Psalm 34:1-10, 22

Matthew 5:1-12

Year B:

Wisdom of Solomon 3:1-9 or Isaiah 25:6-9

Psalm 24

Revelation 21:1-6a

John 11:32-44

Year B:

Daniel 7:1-3, 15-18

Psalm 149

Ephesians 1:11-23

Luke 6:20-31

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2006), 663; also Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 59

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Revelation 7:(2-8), 9-17

1 John 3:1-3

Matthew 5:1-12

Lutheran Service Book (2006), xxiii

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Adapted from this post:

https://neatnik2009.wordpress.com/2018/09/13/devotion-for-the-feast-of-all-saints-november-1/

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A Question of Balance   Leave a comment

Above:  Balance Scale

Photographer = Andreas Praefcke

Image in the Public Domain

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[Jesus] called the people to him and said, “Listen, and understand.  What goes into the mouth does not make anyone unclean; it is what comes out of the mouth that makes someone unclean.”

–Matthew 15:10-11, The New Jerusalem Bible (1985)

I remember a single-cell cartoon depicting a man standing before St. Simon Peter at the Pearly Gates.  The caption reads,

No, that is not a sin either.  You must have worried yourself to death.

Recently I have renewed my interest in Scandinavian-American Lutheran history.  I have therefore been reading in that field.  These volumes have covered topics including Pietism, complete with its condemnation of indulging appetites and engaging in “worldly amusements,” such as dancing, drinking tea, playing cards, playing chess, attending plays, attending fairs and circuses, and reading works of fiction.  I have remembered an old joke:

Q:  Why don’t fundamentalists have sex standing up?

A:  It might lead to dancing.

Pietism and Puritanism are two unfortunate -isms that overlap with regard to denunciations of “worldly amusements.”  Pietism, which originated within Lutheranism then spread beyond it, dates to the 1600s, as a reaction against excessively abstract theology in preaching.  Pietism rejects the definition of the church as the assembly of hose called by both word and sacraments and redefines the church as the gathering of the spiritually reborn.  Pietism also de-emphasizes doctrine and stresses deeds–many of them laudible acts of charity and general decency and honest piety.  Unfortunately, Pietism also bends toward legalism and de-emphasizes the sacraments and rituals (referring scornfully to “externals”), tends toward serial contrarianism with regard to “the world,” and is Donatistic.  A Pietist contrasts deeds and doctrines.  I rebut that deeds reveal doctrines.  As we think, so we are.  That which we are inside cannot help but be evident outside.

I affirm the following statements:

  1. What we do matters.
  2. What we do not do matters.
  3. What we believe (give intellectual assent to) matters.
  4. None of the above can save any of us from the consequences of our sins.
  5. Faithful response to God is vital.
  6. Legalism is spiritually detrimental.
  7. Salvation is a gift.  It is free, not cheap.

The allegation of works-based righteousness is a cudgel many Protestants use against Roman Catholicism.  This reality indicates a misapprehension of Roman Catholic theology.  Yes, many Roman Catholics have a sense of works-based righteousness, but so do many Protestants.  I, who grew up a United Methodist in the South Georgia Conference, recall some children’s sermons delivered by laypeople whose theology included works-based righteousness.  I know well that the doctrinal standards of that denomination reject works-based righteousness.  For many Protestants of various theological categories affirming orthodoxy becomes a means of salvation.  Salvation from damnation therefore becomes a matter of knowledge.  This is an error–a sort of Gnosticism, to be precise.  Furthermore, an obsession with personal peccadilloes becomes an excuse for giving short shrift to or ignoring collective responsibility for societal and social ills.  So yes, one might cheat one’s employees and oppose policies that would penalize one for doing so and prevent one from doing so, but one rarely uses profanity and never cheats on one’s spouse.  The Bible says more about the exploitation of people than about sexual activities, however, so such a one needs to rethink one’s priorities.  Anyhow, even the most moral life, measured by kindness, cannot save one from damnation.

In both Judaism and Christianity the law of love is paramount.  So, O reader, leave the world better than you found it.  God will save it, but your faithful response is to act positively.  Also, go ahead and enjoy your life.  Enjoy a good dance, if you wish.  Watch movies, from harmless popcorn flicks to profound art films.  (Italian Neorealism has enriched my life recently.)  Why not relish a well-written novel or short story?  Lose yourself in a symphony or other work of great music.

Finally, brothers, let your minds be filled with everything that is true, everything that is honourable, everything that is upright and pure, everything that we love and admire–and whatever is good and praiseworthy.

–Philippians 4:8, The New Jerusalem Bible (1985)

The “worldly” in “worldly amusements” is not necessarily negative.  Yes, one should avoid much that one can find to amuse oneself, but many of the options are laudable.  Playing chess is beneficial for one’s mind.  Antioxidents in tea are good for us.  Idle hands are not necessarily the Devil’s workshop, for we need to rest and play as well as work.  God has given us life;  may we enjoy it and thank God frequently.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 9, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF KARL BARTH, SWISS REFORMED MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR; FATHER OF MARKUS BARTH, SWISS LUTHERAN MINISTER AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF GEORG FRIEDRICH HELLSTROM, DUTCH-GERMAN MORAVIAN MUSICIAN, COMPOWER, AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT PETER FOURIER, “THE GOOD PRIEST OF MATTAINCOURT;” AND SAINT ALIX LE CLERC, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF NOTRE DAME OF CANONESSES REGULAR OF SAINT AUGUSTINE

THE FEAST OF SAINT WALTER CISZEK, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY PRIEST AND POLITICAL PRISONER

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Concerning Wheat, Tares, and Donatism   4 comments

Above:  Danish Lutheran Synods in the United States of America and Canada

Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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Another parable [Jesus] put before them, saying,

The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field; but while men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and went away.  So when the plants came up and bore grain, then the weeds appeared also.  And the servants of the household came and said to him, “Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field?  How then has it weeds?”  He said to them, “An enemy has done this.”  The servants said to him, “Then do you want us to go and gather them?”  But he said, “No; lest in gathering the weeds you root up the wheat along with them.  But both grow together until the harvest; and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, Gather the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.”

–Matthew 13:24-30, Revised Standard Version–Second Catholic Edition (2002)

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The Roman Emperor Diocletian (reigned 284-305) presided over an empire-wide persecution of Christians starting in 303.  He ordered the burning of Christian books and the destruction of churches.  The penalty for a clergyman (from 303) and a lay person (from 304) who resisted was the combination of incarceration and torture and, in some cases, execution.  The Dioceletian Persecution resulted in many martyrdoms.  That persecution ultimately ended because Constantine I “the Great” (reigned 306-337) won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 and issued the Edict of Milan the following year.  During that persecution, however, many professing Christians chose not to resist.  Traditors surrendered Bibles to the authorities, who burned those volumes.  Many of these traditors subsequently sought reconciliation with the Church, which consented, on condition that they were sincere and penitent.  This forgiving attitude met with the disapproval of rigorists, especially in northern Africa.

The trigger for the Donatist schism occurred in 311.  That year some rigorists opposed the consecration of Caecilian as the new Bishop of Carthage due to the fact that Felix of Aptunga, an erstwhile traditor, consecrated him.  Numidian bishops consecrated Majorinus as a rival bishop.  Soon Donatus, from whose name we derive the word “Donatism,” succeeded him.  The Donatist schism ended only when the Islamic conquest of northern Africa destroyed it centuries later.  Donatists understood themselves to be the true church, the assembly of the uncompromising and the holy.  They were self-righteous.  These rigorists, who identified themselves as pure, were not as pure as they thought they were.  They were, after all, only human.  These rigorists were much like the unforgiving elder brother in the Parable of the Prodigal Son.

Donatism (in the broad sense) predated the schism of 311.  It has also persisted to the present day.  It has been a factor in a host of ecclesiastical schisms, whether on the congregational or denominational level.  I have traced many denominational schisms, unions, and reunions as a hobby.  Along the way I have arrived at a few conclusions:

  1. Most mergers occur to the left.
  2. Most schisms occur to the right, usually in the name of maintaining a standard of purity, whether of orthodoxy, orthopraxy, or both.
  3. Whenever two or more denominations merge, two or more denominations frequently form.
  4. Regardless of how theologically conservative a denomination might be, there is probably at least one denomination to its right.  This might be the result of a schism.
  5. Schism frequently begets more schism.

The state Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark encompassed a range of theological factions in the 1800s.  Two of these were the Pietists and the Grundtvigians.  Pietists, who shunned “worldly amusements,” such as dancing, playing cards, and attending plays, emphasized separation from the world.  Grundtvigians, however, enjoyed “worldly amusements,” especially folk dancing, which scandalized their pietistic co-religionists.  Grundtvigians also differed from Pietists and agreed with Martin Luther that

Printed words are dead, spoken words are living.  On the printed page they are not so forcible as when uttered by the sound of man through his mouth.

Grundtvigians therefore argued that the Bible is not the Word of God (as opposed to the word of God) and that the living message of salvation contained in the Bible and reinforced in Holy Baptism and the Apostles’ Creed is instead that Word.

Although the Danish state church avoided all but minor schisms, the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (1874-1962), renamed the American Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1953, was not as fortunate.  In 1894, after much controversy, pietists seceded and formed the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America.  They quickly joined with another pietistic group, the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church Association (1884-1896) in forming the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church (1896-1960), which dropped “Danish” from its name in 1946.  UDELC/UELC was strongly pietistic during much of its existence.  “Worldly amusements” were allegedly sinful for these “Sad Danes;” the folk dancing that was ubiquitious among the “Happy Danes” in the DELCA/AELC was absent in the  UDELC/UELC.

Enok Mortensen, author of the official retrospective account of the DELCA/AELC, made no excuses for pietism and Donatism:

The schism of 1894 must be seen against the background of a situation existing at that time.  The historian who weighs the evidence carefully and objectively does not doubt the good intentions of those who sought a “pure” church; he only questions their wisdom.  The Christian church is not a society of angels; in the words of the Lord of the church, it is a field of wheat and tares in which both must grow together until harvest.

–Enok Mortensen, The Danish Lutheran Church in America:  The History and Heritage of the American Evangelical Lutheran Church (Philadelphia, PA:  Board of Publication, Lutheran Church in America, 1967), page 121

Laying the issue of the identity of the Kingdom of Heaven (reverential circumlocution is a false argument, according to Jonathan Pennington) in the Gospel of Matthew aside for the purpose of this post, Mortensen’s tolerant theological position was commendable.  Likewise critical (in the best sense of that word) of pietism and Donatism was John M. Jensen, author of the corresponding volume about the UDELC/UELC:

The men who had written about the UELC in the past had generally been uncritical.  They simply glorified the pioneers and placed a halo about their heads and their works.  That was especially the case concerning the men of the Danish period.  This tended to color all writing about the church in the church papers.

It has been my purpose to be as realistic as possible.  While I have written about the accomplishments of the men, I have ever hesitated to point out weaknesses wherever I found the.  This, it seems to me, must be the prerogative of a historian.  Otherwise the history will be distorted.

–John M. Jensen, The United Evangelical Lutheran Church:  An Interpretation (Minneapolis, MN:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1964), pages v-vi

Furthermore:

In the earlier years of the church, it was not so much in the later years, there was a sharp distinction between the saved and the unsaved, between the believer and the unbeliever.  This may have been both a strength and a weakness, but it was what furnished the motivation for the preaching and the work, for maintaining the school, and for sending out missionaries.  There were places where the spirit built up strong congregations, but there were also places where pietism became so legalistic that the congregations could not grow.  An example of this legalism was the constant preaching by some pastors that the members should be sure not to eat and drink themselves to damnation in Holy Communion.  An overly legalistic attitude sometimes became a barrier to sound evangelism.

–Jensen, page 234

To speak or write about Donatism in the past, especially in denominations that have merged themselves away (as the two Danish synods did in the early 1960s), is relatively easy.  Likewise, speaking and writing harshly of the self-righteousness of Donatists (in the narrow definition) who died thousands of years ago is a low-risk proposition.  However, Donatists (in the broad definition) exist among us.  Some of the readers of this post might even be Donatists.  Thus labeling contemporary Donatism becomes politically fraught.  Without naming any congregations or denominations in this post I assert that you, O reader, can probably find concrete evidence of Donatism in your community.

To return to the parable at the beginning of this post, I assert the following also.  Anyone who fancies oneself to be wheat and certain others to be tares might be correct.  Or one might be mistaken; one might be a tare or others might be wheat.  Only God knows for sure.  One should not presume to know more than one does.  One should also leave all weeding to God.  Collegiality is superior to Donatism.  If collegiality is not a feasible option, simply refraining from imagining that one is purer than one actually is will suffice.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 1, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHARLES DE FOUCAULD, ROMAN CATHOLIC HERMIT AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF DOUGLAS LETELL RIGHTS, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, SCHOLAR, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF EDWARD TIMOTHY MICKEY, JR., U.S. MORAVIAN BISHOP AND LITURGIST

THE FEAST OF PETER MORTIMER, ANGLO-GERMAN MORAVIAN EDUCATOR, MUSICIAN, AND SCHOLAR; AND GOTTFRIED THEODOR ERXLEBEN, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER AND MUSICOLOGIST

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The Doddridge Count   41 comments

Doddridge 1905

Above:  Philip Doddridge’s Entry from the Author Index in The Methodist Hymnal (1905)

Image Source = Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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Philip Doddridge (1702-1751) was among the giants of English hymnody.  He wrote more than 400 hymns, usually at the rate of one a week.  Reading about the decline of the inclusion of his texts in U.S. Methodist hymnody has prompted me to think about the broadening of worship resources as denominations become more multicultural in official resources.  This broadening is neither entirely good nor bad, but I remain mostly a European classicist without any apology.

My research method has been simple:

  1. I have consulted all germane hymnals (of which I have hardcopies; electronic copies do not count for now) in my library.  Supplements issued between official hardcover hymnals do not count, but post-Vatican II Roman Catholic hymnals do.
  2. I have not listed hymnals which lack an index of authors unless I have a companion volume to it with such an index included.  Thus this survey does not include many hymnals from the 1800s and 1900s.

The grand champion in this survey is The Methodist Hymnal (Methodist Episcopal Church and Methodist Episcopal Church, South; 1905), with twenty-two (22) Doddridge hymns.  The other members of the two-digit club follow:

  1. The Hymnal (Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1895)–15;
  2. The Hymnal (Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1911)–13; the same count in the edition with the Supplement of 1917;
  3. The Evangelical Hymnal (The Evangelical Church, 1921-1946, and its predecessors, 1921)–12;
  4. Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) (Moravian Church in America, 1923)–12;
  5. The Church Hymnal (Church of the United Brethren in Christ, 1935)–11;
  6. Trinity Hymnal (Orthodox Presbyterian Church, 1961)–11; and
  7. Trinity Hymnal–Baptist Edition (Reformed Baptist, 1995)–10.

Each of the following hymnals contains nine Doddridge hymns:

  1. The Pilgrim Hymnal (Congregationalist, 1912);
  2. The Church Hymnary (British, Australian, New Zealand, and South African Presbyterian, 1927); and
  3. The Hymnary of The United Church of Canada (1930);

Each of the following hymnals contains eight Doddridge hymns:

  1. The Pilgrim Hymnal (Congregationalist, 1904);
  2. The Methodist Hymnal (Methodist Episcopal Church; Methodist Episcopal Church, South; and Methodist Protestant Church; 1935; then The Methodist Church, 1939 forward); and
  3. Rejoice in the Lord (Reformed Church in America, 1985).

Each of the following hymnals contains seven Doddridge hymns:

  1. New Baptist Hymnal (Northern Baptist Convention and Southern Baptist Convention, 1926);
  2. The Methodist Hymnal/The Book of Hymns (The Methodist Church, 1966, then The United Methodist Church, 1968 forward);
  3. The Hymnal 1982 (The Episcopal Church, 1985); and
  4. Trinity Hymnal (Orthodox Presbyterian Church and Presbyterian Church in America, 1990)

The Lutheran Hymnal (Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, 1941) contains six Doddridge hymns.

Each of the following hymnals contains five Doddridge hymns:

  1. Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church (United Lutheran Church in America, 1918-1962, and its predecessors, 1917);
  2. The Hymnal (The Episcopal Church, 1940); same count after the Supplements of 1961 and 1976;
  3. The Hymnal of the Evangelical Mission Covenant Church of America (1950);
  4. The Hymnbook (Presbyterian Church in the United States, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., United Presbyterian Church of North America, Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, and Reformed Church in America, 1955);
  5. Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Moravian Church in America, 1969);
  6. The Hymnbook of the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada (1971);
  7. Hymns for the Living Church (1974); and
  8. Praise! Our Songs and Hymns (1979).

Each of the following hymnals contains four Doddridge hymns:

  1. The English Hymnal (The Church of England, 1906)
  2. The Hymnal (Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1933);
  3. Pilgrim Hymnal (Congregationalist/Congregational Christian, 1931/1935);
  4. Christian Worship:  A Hymnal (Northern Baptist Convention and Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 1941);
  5. Hymns of the Living Faith (Free Methodist Church of North America and Wesleyan Methodist Church of America, 1951);
  6. The Hymnal of the Evangelical United Brethren Church (1957);
  7. Pilgrim Hymnal (Congregational Christian/United Church of Christ, 1958);
  8. The Covenant Hymnal (Evangelical Covenant Church of America, 1973);
  9. Hymns of Faith and Life (Free Methodist Church and Wesleyan Church, 1976);
  10. Praise the Lord (Churches of Christ, 1992), and
  11. Christian Worship:  A Lutheran Hymnal (Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 1993).

Each of the following hymnals contains three Doddridge hymns:

  1. The Church Hymnary–Third Edition (Scottish Presbyterian, 1973);
  2. The Hymnal (Evangelical and Reformed Church, 1941);
  3. The Worshipbook–Services and Hymns (United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Presbyterian Church in the United States, and Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 1972);
  4. Lutheran Worship (The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 1982); and
  5. Common Praise (Anglican Church of Canada, 1998).

Each of the following hymnals contains two Doddridge hymns:

  1. The Service Hymnal (Non-denominational Evangelical, 1950);
  2. Armed Forces Hymnal (United States Armed Forces Chaplains Board, 1958);
  3. Hymns of Grace (Primitive Baptist, 1967);
  4. Book of Worship for United States Forces (1974);
  5. The Hymnal of the United Church of Christ (1974);
  6. Hymns for the Family of God (Non-denominational Evangelical, 1976);
  7. Hymns of the Spirit for Use in the Free Churches of America (American Unitarian Association and Universalist Church of America, 1937);
  8. Lutheran Book of Worship (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 1987-, and its predecessors, 1978);
  9. Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1985);
  10. Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal (1985);
  11. The Hymnal for Worship & Celebration (Non-denominational Evangelical, 1986);
  12. The Presbyterian Hymnal:  Hymns, Psalms, and Spiritual Songs (Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 1990); and
  13. Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary (Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 1996);

Each of the following hymnals contains one Doddridge hymn:

  1. Christian Youth Hymnal (United Lutheran Church in America, 1948)
  2. Hymns for the Celebration of Life (Unitarian Universalist Association, 1964);
  3. Hymnbook for Christian Worship (American Baptist Convention and Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 1970);
  4. Baptist Hymnal (Southern Baptist Convention, 1975);
  5. Psalter Hymnal (Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1987);
  6. Worship His Majesty (Non-denominational Evangelical, 1987);
  7. The United Methodist Hymnal:  Book of United Methodist Worship (1989);
  8. The Baptist Hymnal (Southern Baptist Convention, 1991);
  9. Sing to the Lord (Church of the Nazarene, 1993);
  10. Ambassador Hymnal for Lutheran Worship (Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, 1994);
  11. The New Century Hymnal (United Church of Christ, 1995);
  12. The Covenant Hymnal:  A Worshipbook (Evangelical Covenant Church of America, 1996);
  13. The Celebration Hymnal:  Songs and Hymns for Worship (Non-Denominational Evangelical, 1997);
  14. Evangelical Lutheran Worship (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 2006);
  15. Lutheran Service Book (The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 2006);
  16. Baptist Hymnal (Southern Baptist Convention, 2008);
  17. Celebrating Grace Hymnal (Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, 2010); and
  18. Lift Up Your Hearts (Reformed Church in America and Christian Reformed Church in North America, 2013).

And each of the following hymnals contains no Doddridge hymns:

  1. The Psalter (United Presbyterian Church of North America, 1912);
  2. The Psalter (Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1914/1927);
  3. The Concordia Hymnal:  A Hymnal for Church, School and Home (Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, 1932);
  4. Psalter Hymnal (Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1934);
  5. Psalter Hymnal (Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1959);
  6. Worship II (Roman Catholic Church, 1975);
  7. Psalter Hymnal (Christian Reformed Church in North America, 1976);
  8. Worship:  A Hymnal and Service Book for Roman Catholics, Third Edition, a.k.a. Worship III (1986);
  9. Singing the Living Tradition (Unitarian Universalist Association, 1993);
  10. Gather Comprehensive (Roman Catholic Church, 1994);
  11. Chalice Hymnal (Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 1995);
  12. Moravian Book of Worship (Moravian Church in America, 1995);
  13. RitualSong (Roman Catholic Church, 1996);
  14. The Service Hymnal:  A Lutheran Homecoming (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, unofficial, 2001);
  15. Gather Comprehensive–Second Edition (Roman Catholic Church, 2004); and
  16. Glory to God:  The Presbyterian Hymnal (Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 2013).

The chronological arrangement of this information reveals that the Doddridge counts began to drop noticeably and consistently in the 1930s and that the pace of decline quickened in the 1950s and 1960s then again in the 1990s and later.

I understand that there is a finite number of hymns one can include in a hymnal.  When one adds a song of more recent vintage and/or from elsewhere in the world, another text–one which has fallen out of use–will probably fall by the wayside during the process of hymnal revision.  Sometimes new material is of great quality; I have shared some well-written contemporary hymns during hymn-planning sessions at church and gotten them to the choir.  But sometimes new content is of lesser quality; repetitive “seven-eleven” songs with few words have become more numerous in hymnals across the theological spectrum.  Whenever those displace quality texts, such as Philip Doddridge hymns, something unfortunate has occurred.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 8, 2014 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOSEPHINE BAKHITA, ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN OF MALTA AND FELIX OF VALOIS, FOUNDERS OF THE ORDER OF THE MOST HOLY TRINITY

THE FEAST OF SAINT JEROME EMILIANI, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST

THE FEAST OF WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK, U.S. ARMY GENERAL

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Amended February 14, 2014 Common Era

Amended March 28, 2014 Common Era

Amended May 16, 2014 Common Era

Amended September 17, 2014 Common Era

Amended October 1, 2014 Common Era

Amended October 2, 2014 Common Era

Amended June 4, 2015 Common Era

Amended August 24, 2015 Common Era

Amended December 29, 2015 Common Era

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Posted February 8, 2014 by neatnik2009 in American Baptist Churches USA, Anglican and Lutheran (General), Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Episcopal Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Predecessors, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Predecessors' Offshoots, Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod, Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod Predecessors, Moravian (General), Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Predecessors, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Predecessors' Offshoots, Reformed (General), United Church of Christ, United Church of Christ Predecessors, United Methodist Church, United Methodist Church Predecessors, Wesleyan (General), Worship and Liturgy

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My Fascination With Liturgy   1 comment

Liturgical Books I October 1, 2013

Above:  A Portion of My Liturgical Library, October 1, 2013

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As I have written on this weblog and elsewhere, I am an unapologetic ritualist.  The primary reason for this is simple and straight-forward:  Ritualism creates a holy atmosphere removed from the mundane realities of daily life.  Within this holy atmosphere I feel closer to God, who is always close to me, I know.  But this is about my spiritual life, not the reality of God.  And, if anyone chooses to challenge me on my embrace of ritualism, I refuse to waste much time or breath rebutting him or her.  I have said what I meant and meant what I said.  I have used clear language.  If that proves insufficient for someone, so be it.  I will not let such a person dissuade me from ritualism.

Liturgy, literally

the work of the people,

is vital in public worship.  Congregations ought not to spend much time impersonating knots on logs.  No, they should be very much involved.  Most of U.S. Lutheranism has recovered this awareness since the middle 1800s, as my recent self-directed study of U.S. Lutheran liturgy has revealed.  And I, as an Episcopalian, have the wonderful Book of Common Prayer (1979) to use.

The best liturgies are ritualistic ones, for they elevate souls and appeal to our higher natures while stimulating our senses.  We humans are not merely heads attached to bodies meant only to transport them.  And one unfortunate legacy of the Protestant Reformation was a reaction against–not a considered response to–certain excesses and errors of Medieval Roman Catholicism.  Regretfully, that reaction continues in bad liturgies designed to appeal to heads, not bodies.  Actually, the union of ritualism and active faith is a beautiful combination.

My fascination with liturgy originates from within and without.  Something about good liturgy appeals to me inherently, so I would have become a ritualist eventually anyhow.  And I, growing up in rural southern Georgia United Methodist congregations, witnessed much atrocious liturgical practice.  I had to convert or starve spiritually.  So I became an Episcopalian.  I have never looked back.

My collection of hymnals, service books, and volumes about liturgy began with a handful of volumes in the late 1980s-early 1990s.  Now that collection fills a tall bookcase and spills out of it.  Furthermore, I have begun a wish list of books (many of them from the United Church of Canada) to add to my collection in time.  My desire to know more about liturgy is insatiable, I rejoice to stay.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 1, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, LORD SHAFTESBURY, BRITISH HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL REFORMER

THE FEAST OF SAINT REMIGIUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF RHEIMS

THE FEAST OF SAINT ROMANUS THE MELODIST, PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT THERESA OF LISIEUX, ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN

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Below:  More of My Liturgical Library, October 1, 2013

Liturgical Books II October 1, 2013

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Excesses and Errors of Pietism   47 comments

Excesses and Errors of Pietism

Above:  The Last Page of My Draft of This Post

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I am an Episcopalian.  I used to identify more as an Anglican, but many Donatists in North America have taken that label for themselves.  So now I identify primarily as an Episcopalian and secondarily as an Anglican.  Yet I embrace the broad, inclusive meaning of Anglicanism, with its acceptance, tolerance, and collegiality.  And I like the Anglican spirit of unity in worship, not theological orthodoxy–whichever version of it a specific church party might seek to define as normative.  So my religion is sacramental, ritualistic, and warm-hearted, given to good works.  And my religion is quite intellectual, for the human brain is a great gift from God.

Given my spiritual and theological predilections, I bristle against the excesses and errors of Pietism.  On occasion my expressions of this sentiment have caused offense to some in my family and beyond it.  Sometimes people have accused me of judging.  No, my offense (not sin) was to hold and state a contrary opinion.  For that I offer no apology.  As I sign I have says,

FOR EVERY ACTION THERE IS AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE CRITICISM.

I do not apologize for the fact of another person’s thin skin.

Yet Pietism is not all bad.  It emerged in European Lutheranism shortly after the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648).  One Jakob Spener (1635-1705), responding to stale confessional orthodoxy, proposed six goals for Christian living:

  1. Individual Bible study;
  2. The practice of the priesthood of all believers;
  3. The priority of good works;
  4. The maintenance of charity amid theological controversy;
  5. The improved education and training of clergy; and
  6. The reform of preaching to fit the previous five goals.

Many Pietists, using slogans such as

LIFE VERSUS DOCTRINE

and

REALITY VERSUS THE APPEARANCE OF GODLINESS,

focused on a living faith–an excellent ideal.  And they engaged in many great charitable works which improved societies–also consistent with the best aspects of Christianity.

But excesses and errors developed early and spread abroad quickly.  They live today.

  1. Sometimes the focus on holy living has devolved into persnickety rules, such as prohibitions against playing cards or dancing.  The rejection of one form of stale orthodoxy–abstract theology–has led to another form of stale orthodoxy–legalism–really a heresy.  This also constitutes a purity code.  Jesus rejected purity codes of his day.
  2. The emphasis on regeneration (a term I have seen used so many ways that I have ceased to know what it means when someone uses it) reflects a basic flaw in Protestantism–too much emphasis on the individual and not enough on the faith community.
  3. This obsession with regeneration has led to a rejection of good liturgy, such as the church year, service books, and “smells and bells.”  I, as a ritualist, object to this error.  A stunted sacramental theology has hindered much of Protestantism, denying it the fullness it might have enjoyed and shared otherwise.
  4. The undervaluing of objective truth in favor of subjective experience has been unfortunate.  I, as one who values objective reality highly, take issue with excessive subjectivity.  In fact, I, as a history buff, like to apply universal, timeless ethical standards to historical figures.  Some tell me that I ought not to do this, but they are displaying excessive subjectivity.

Despite the historical origins of Pietism in late seventeenth-century European Lutheranism, I recognize a related mentality in the Puritanism (which rejected the priesthood of the believer in favor of a high view of the pastor as interpreter of the Bible) of the early-to-late 1600s.  As Professor Edmund S. Morgan wrote in The Puritan Family, Puritans emphasized rules of civil living

in order to convince themselves that they were sanctified.

–page 5

Unfortunately, some of these rules were quite strict–down to punishing people for humming or singing to themselves in public on Sunday and making church attendance mandatory.  But, as Roger Williams observed correctly, the only sincere prayer is the one a person offers sincerely.

I recognize excesses of Pietism in wrong-headed obsessions with “worldliness” and “worldly amusements.”  Some examples follow:

  1. In the 1870s the pastor and Session of Central Presbyterian Church, Atlanta, Georgia, carried out a “reign of terror” (a term from page 18 of the 1979 church history), excommunicating about half of the congregation.   The excommunicated had danced or played bridge or hosted a dance at home.  Deacon Frank Block, who published an eighteen-page defense of himself, had done the latter.  The pastor left under a cloud of controversy in December 1878 and the congregation took years to heal.
  2. Over a decade ago I heard a history professor at Georgia Southern University–a good liberal Episcopalian forced into home schooling by the local school system’s problems–speak of awkward moments at gatherings of the local home schooling association.  One other parent, for example, forbade her child(ren) to play soccer because the sport was “too worldly.”  The professor shook his head in dismay.
  3. The Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), founded in 1880, had liberalized by 1910.  Finally it resolved officially that any man who wore a necktie to church was not violating Biblical standards.  So, in 1910 and 1911, the Church of God (Guthrie, Oklahoma) separated.  Its leaders cited doctrinal drift and church “worldliness” as justifications for the schism.
  4. Gene Pollett (who told me the following story in the 1990s) served as the pastor of Andrew Chapel Methodist Church, Kathleen, Georgia, in the 1960s.  There was little for the youth of the community to do on Saturday nights, so parents from various churches agreed to chaperone a weekly dance held at the fellowship hall of Andrew Chapel.  One Saturday night a local Southern Baptist minister made a scene, confronting Gene and complaining about the sinful dancing taking place inside.  Unfortunately for that preacher, some portion of his congregation was present at the dance and heard his rant.  That Baptist congregation was seeking a new pastor shortly thereafter.

I know that some might beat me about the theological head and neck with Romans 14 and that others might merely suggest that I read it.  I have read it–many times, in fact.  And I have read other Pauline passages regarding one’s activities in relation to “weaker members,” as the texts refer to them.  My lifestyle is quiet and basic.  It is free of scandalous behaviors.  Yet I know that some “weaker members” might not understand even my simple lifestyle as I do.  I have decided, however, that I will try to live a good life because that is the right thing to do.  I have vowed to leave my corner of the world better than I found it because that is what I ought to do.  And I will not permit the potential confusion on the part of others to limit my choices.  If I were to do so, I would do little or nothing.  And then what good would I be in this world?

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 3, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ARTHUR CARL LICHTENBERGER, PRESIDING BISHOP OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH

THE FEAST OF J. R. R. TOLKIEN, NOVELIST

THE FEAST OF JIMMY LAWRENCE, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF PRUDENCE CRANDALL, EDUCATOR

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Amended on September 5, 2013

Amended on October 18, 2013

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Bowker, John, ed.  The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.  New York, NY:  Oxford University Press, 1997.  I find this volume quite useful during my ongoing quest to understand the content of religious claims objectively.

Melton, J. Gordon.  Encyclopedia of American Religions.  4h. Ed.  Detroit, MI:  Gale Research, Inc., 1993.  This is a crucial reference work in my library.

Morgan, Edmund S.  The Puritan Family:  Religion and Domestic Relations in Seventeenth-Century New England.  2d.  Ed.  New York, NY:  Harper & Row, 1966.  Morgan was an expert of Puritanism.

Precht, Fred L., ed.  Lutheran Worship:  History and Practice.  St. Louis, MO:  Concordia Publishing House, 1993.  This work includes a strong Confessional Lutheran (Missouri Synod) critique of Pietism.  I agree with parts of that critique and disagree with others, for I am not a Confessional Lutheran–or even a Lutheran, although I could be a Lutheran under certain circumstances.

Smith, John Robert.  The Church That Stayed:  The Life and Times of Central Presbyterian Church in the Heart of Atlanta, 1858-1978.  Atlanta, GA:  The Atlanta Historical Society, 1979.  O, the treasures one finds at thrift stores!

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Guide to Posts Regarding Canadian Lutherans   Leave a comment

Flag_of_Canada.svg

Above:  The Canadian Flag

(Image in the Public Domain)

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Blessed Are You, O Lord, Our God, and King of All Creation:  Hymnal Supplement 98 (1998) and the Lutheran Service Book (2006):

https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/blessed-are-you-o-lord-our-god-king-of-all-creation-hymnal-supplement-98-1998-and-the-lutheran-service-book-2006/

Lord of Heaven and Earth:  The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978):

https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/lord-of-heaven-and-earth-the-lutheran-book-of-worship-1978/

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006) and Lutheran Service Book (2006)–Services:

https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2012/07/01/evangelical-lutheran-worship-2006-and-lutheran-service-book-2006-services/

Two Kings:

https://blogatheologica.wordpress.com/2014/09/10/two-kings/

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