Campaigns of Lysias   Leave a comment

Above:  King Antiochus V Eupator

Image in the Public Domain

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READING 1, 2 AND 4 MACCABEES

PART XVII

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1 Maccabees 3:27-4:35

2 Maccabees 8:8-36; 11:1-12:1

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Lysias was a prominent man.  He was a member of the royal court of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes.  Lysias, in fact, belonged to the court order; he was “the King’s relative.”  Lysias was also the viceroy of the lands between the Egyptian border and the Euphrates River.  And he was the guardian of the future King Antiochus V Eupator (reigned 164/163 B.C.E.-162 B.C.E.), then seven years old.

When we left off in the narrative, Judas Maccabeus was winning battles against Seleucid forces.  The rebel leader had become enemy number one, according to King Antiochus IV Epiphanes.  King Antiochus IV, whose proverbial chickens were coming home to roost (as proverbial chickens are wont to do), went off to raise money in the east of the empire.  He gave half of his army to Lysias, to command, in the year 147 of the Seleucid/Hellenistic calendar (165 B.C.E.).

The mission of Lysias was straight-forward:  to crush the Hasmonean Rebellion, to massacre Jews, and to colonize Judea.  The faithful Jewish response consisted of praying and fighting.  In 165 B.C.E., Judas Maccabeus recalled divine faithfulness against seemingly impossible odds.  The Hasmonean force won another victory, which they credited to God.

In 164 B.C.E., Judas Maccabeus won another victory against a larger force.  He prayed before the battle.

1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees contradict each other regarding some details.  Mostly, so what?  I do not care if Lysias commanded a force of 65,000 (1 Maccabees 4:28) or 80,000 (2 Maccabees 11:2).  That matter may or may not be interesting, depending on what one considers interesting.  Whether or not Judas Maccabeus established a peace–yes (1 Maccabees 4:25) or no (2 Maccabees 11:13-15)–is somewhat interesting to me.  I also notice the different organization of material in the two books.  2 Maccabees wraps the content around the death of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes and the purification of the Temple.  1 Maccabees does not.  That contradiction interests me somewhat, too.  Then again, comparative chronologies, are inconsistent in parts of the Hebrew Bible and the Gospels.  If I affirmed Biblical inerrancy and/or infallibility, I would probably have a theological or spiritual crisis over such inconsistencies.  

The main idea in these readings seems to be that the forces of Judas Maccabeus were invulnerable as long as they followed the Law of Moses.  God, the authors believed, fought for the Jews against their Seleucid oppressors.  The contrast between the spiritual humility of Judas Maccabeus and the arrogance of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes is stark.

I do not accept for a New York minute that fidelity to the divine covenant makes a military force or adherents to a cause invincible.  Faithfulness to God does not necessarily lead to triumph.  I wish it did.  The world would be a better place if it did.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 10, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT SCHOLASTICA, ABBESS OF PLOMBARIOLA; AND HER TWIN BROTHER, SAINT BENEDICT OF NURSIA, ABBOT OF MONTE CASSINO AND FATHER OF WESTERN MONASTICISM

THE FEAST OF SAINT BENEDICT OF ANIANE, RESTORER OF WESTERN MONASTICISM; AND SAINT ARDO, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF JULIA WILLIAMS GARNET, AFRICAN-AMERICAN ABOLITIONIST AND EDUCATOR; HER HUSBAND, HENRY HIGHLAND GARNET, AFRICAN-AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND ABOLITIONIST; HIS SECOND WIFE, SARAH J. SMITH TOMPKINS GARNET, AFRICAN-AMERICAN SUFFRAGETTE AND EDUCATOR; HER SISTER, SUSAN MARIA SMITH MCKINNEY STEWARD, AFRICAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIAN; AND HER SECOND HUSBAND, THEOPHILUS GOULD STEWARD, U.S. AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL MINISTER, ARMY CHAPLAIN, AND PROFESSOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT NORBERT OF XANTEN, FOUNDER OF THE PREMONSTRATENSIANS; SAINT HUGH OF FOSSES, SECOND FOUNDER OF THE PREMONSTRATENSIANS; AND SAINT EVERMOD, BISHOP OF RATZEBURG

THE FEAST OF PHILIP ARMES, ANGLICAN CHURCH ORGANIST

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